Beteja e Nishit

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Beteja e Nishit
Pjesë e the Luftëra Osmane në Europë
Ottoman-Hungarian Wars
Data fillim nëntori 1443
Vendi Nishi, Perandoria Osmane
Rezultati Victory for the Christian contingent[1]
Pjesëmarrsit në konflikt
20pxKingdom of Hungary
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svgKingdom of Poland
SLazarevic Coat of Arms.png Serbian Despotate
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453).svgOttoman Empire
Komandantët dhe udhëheqësit
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svgWładysław III of Poland
20pxJohn Hunyadi
SLazarevic Coat of Arms.png Đurađ Branković
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453).svgKasim Pasha[2]
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453).svgTurakhan Beg[3]
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453).svg Isak-Beg[4]
Flag of the Ottoman Sultanate (1299-1453).svgSkanderbeg
Fuqia (kapaciteti)
20,000 Hungarian soldiers and mercenaries
5,000 Polish soldiers[5]
8,000 Serbs[6]
Unknown
Viktimat dhe humbjet
Unknown 300 Albanian cavalrymen deserted along with Skanderbeg

Stampa:Campaignbox Ottoman-Hungarian War

Stampa:Serbian-Ottoman Wars (Medieval)

Ne Beteja e Nishit (Beteja e Nissa) (fillimi i nentorit, 1443), kryqëzata[7] u udhëhoq nga John Hunyadi,[8] morrën bastioni OsmanNishit dhe mundi tre armies of the Ottoman Empire. Beteja e Nishit ishte nje pjese e e ekspeditës se Hunyadit e njohur si fushata e gjatë. Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan, captured Niš, defeated three Turkish pashas, and, after taking Sofia, united with the royal army and defeated Sultan Murad II at Snaim (Kustinitza). The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the Sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bullgaria, dhe Shqipëria.

Sfondi[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Më 1440 John Hunyadi became the trusted adviser and most highly-regarded soldier of the king Władysław III of Poland. Hunyadi was rewarded with the captaincy of the fortress of Belgrade and was put in charge of military operations against the Ottomans. The king Władysław recognized Hunyadi's merits by granting him estates in Eastern Hungary. Hunyadi soon showed and displayed extraordinary capacity in marshalling its defenses with the limited resources at his disposal. He was victorious in Semendria over Isak-Beg in 1441, not far from Nagyszeben in Transylvania he annihilated an Ottoman force and recovered for Hungary the suzerainty of Wallachia. In July 1442 at the Iron Gates he defeated a massed Ottoman formation of 80.000 led by Sehabbedin. These victories made Hunyadi a prominent enemy of the Ottomans and renowned throughout Christendom, and was a prime motivator to undertake in 1443, along with King Władysław, the famous expedition known as the long campaign with Battle of Niš as one of the battles of this campaign. Hunyadi was accompanied by Giuliano Cesarini during this campaign.[9]

Beteja[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

There was no one major battle for Niš but five different battles. The first was a battle against small garrison in Niš and capture of the town, three different battles against three different Ottoman armies advancing to the Niš and last, fought against the remnants of all three of them.

The battle took place in the plain between Bolvani and Niš on November 3, 1443.[10] Ottoman forces were led by Kasim Pasha, the beglerbeg of Rumelia, Turakhan Beg and Isak-Beg.[4] After Ottoman defeat retreating forces of Kasim Pasha and Turakhan Beg burned all villages between Niš and Sofia.[11] The Ottoman sources justify an Ottoman defeat by lack of cooperation between the Ottoman armies led by different commanders.[12]

Më pas[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

George Kastrioti Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army along with 300 other Albanians and started a twenty-five year long Albanian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire.[13] Murad II signed a treaty for ten years, and abdicated in favor of his son Mehmed II. When the peace was broken the next year, Murad returned to the Balkans and won the Battle of Varna in November 1444.[14]

Burime[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The Crusades: A History, (Continuum International Publishing Group, 1987), 275.
  2. ^ Skënderbeu: Jeta dhe vepra by Kristo Frashëri, p. 130.
  3. ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1993), [[:w:First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936:http://books.google.com/books?id=ro--tXw_hxMC&pg=PA876&lpg=PA876&dq=Pasha+Yigit+Beg&source=bl&ots=VsIOV9u8BG&sig=aMPS1pECgYmbxxriLBF3ZoMP42k&hl=en&ei=EHYUTej7M4ea8QP_w_CEBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Pasha%20Yigit%20Beg&f=false%7Chttp://books.google.com/books?id=ro--tXw_hxMC&pg=PA876&lpg=PA876&dq=Pasha+Yigit+Beg&source=bl&ots=VsIOV9u8BG&sig=aMPS1pECgYmbxxriLBF3ZoMP42k&hl=en&ei=EHYUTej7M4ea8QP_w_CEBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Pasha%20Yigit%20Beg&f=false]], VIII, Netherlands: E.J. Brill and Luzac and Co., p. 466, <http://books.google.com/books?id=ro--tXw_hxMC&pg=PA876&lpg=PA876&dq=Pasha+Yigit+Beg&source=bl&ots=VsIOV9u8BG&sig=aMPS1pECgYmbxxriLBF3ZoMP42k&hl=en&ei=EHYUTej7M4ea8QP_w_CEBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Pasha%20Yigit%20Beg&f=false>, ""In the beginning of November 1443, Turakhan Beg commanded one of the Ottoman corps in the battle against John Hunyadi." 
  4. ^ a b Babinger, Franz (1992), http://books.google.com/books?id=PPxC6rO7vvsC&pg=PA25&dq=battle+of+Zlatitsa&hl=en&ei=i8XsTdOcAs7usgbUstTnCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20Zlatitsa&f=false, Princeton University Press, p. 25, ISBN 9780691010786, <http://books.google.com/books?id=PPxC6rO7vvsC&pg=PA25&dq=battle+of+Zlatitsa&hl=en&ei=i8XsTdOcAs7usgbUstTnCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20Zlatitsa&f=false>, "The combined host met Ottoman forces first on November 3, 1443, between the castle of Bolvan (near Aleksinac) and the city of Niš. Here Kasim Bey, then governor of Rumelia, Ishak Bey and other standard bearers were defeated." 
  5. ^ Setton, Kenneth (1989), [[:w:A history of the crusades : Volume VI: The impact of the crusades on Europe:http://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false%7Chttp://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false]], Madison, Wis. : The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 270, ISBN 9780299107406, OCLC 475548809, <http://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false>, "The whole army estimated to consist of 25,000 men, included an important mercenary force hired with funds given by Serbian despot, and in addition, a contigent of 8,000 Serbs and 5,000 Polish soldiers" 
  6. ^ Babinger, Frank and Ralph Manheim, William C. Hickman, Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time, (Princeton University Press, 1978), 25.
  7. ^ Riley-Smith, 275.
  8. ^ Hupchick, Dennis P., The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 117.
  9. ^ Babinger, Franz (1992), http://books.google.com/books?id=PPxC6rO7vvsC&pg=PA25&dq=battle+of+Zlatitsa&hl=en&ei=i8XsTdOcAs7usgbUstTnCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20Zlatitsa&f=false, Princeton University Press, p. 25, ISBN 9780691010786, <http://books.google.com/books?id=PPxC6rO7vvsC&pg=PA25&dq=battle+of+Zlatitsa&hl=en&ei=i8XsTdOcAs7usgbUstTnCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=battle%20of%20Zlatitsa&f=false>, "John Hunyadi accompanied by the cardinal-legate Giuliano Cesarini." 
  10. ^ Setton, Kenneth (1989), [[:w:A history of the crusades : Volume VI: The impact of the crusades on Europe:http://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false%7Chttp://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false]], Madison, Wis. : The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 270, ISBN 9780299107406, OCLC 475548809, <http://books.google.com/books?id=TKaPrQPFIAMC&pg=PA270&lpg=PA270&dq=turakhan+beglerbeg+rumelia&source=bl&ots=4FY7tr9Kq4&sig=-dah7t3UKE8h7RnVI9apgkQbDxM&hl=en&ei=epTsTby7M4_t-gbakLTpDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turakhan%20beglerbeg%20rumelia&f=false>, "the most important battle of the whole campaign took place at Bolvani, in the plain of Nish on November 3, 1443" 
  11. ^ Imber, Colin (2006), http://books.google.com/books?id=xeuaoghuq3cC&pg=PA49&dq=kasim+pasha+nish&hl=en&ei=3UHnTZzaHtSs8QPU7Nz8Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=kasim&f=false, Aldershot ; Burlington (Vt.) : Ashgate, cop., p. 16, ISBN 9780754601449, OCLC 470458159, <http://books.google.com/books?id=xeuaoghuq3cC&pg=PA49&dq=kasim+pasha+nish&hl=en&ei=3UHnTZzaHtSs8QPU7Nz8Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=kasim&f=false>, "In the course of their flight Kasim and Turahan burned all villages between Niš and Sofia." 
  12. ^ Imber, Colin (2006), http://books.google.com/books?id=xeuaoghuq3cC&pg=PA49&dq=kasim+pasha+nish&hl=en&ei=3UHnTZzaHtSs8QPU7Nz8Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=kasim&f=false, Aldershot ; Burlington (Vt.) : Ashgate, cop., p. 270, ISBN 9780754601449, OCLC 470458159, <http://books.google.com/books?id=xeuaoghuq3cC&pg=PA49&dq=kasim+pasha+nish&hl=en&ei=3UHnTZzaHtSs8QPU7Nz8Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=kasim&f=false>, "The Ottoman sources in general emphasize the disagreement and lack of cooperation between frontier Ottoman forces under Turakhan and sipahi army under Kasim" 
  13. ^ Encyclopaedia of the Muslim World, Ed. Taru Bahl, M.H. Syed, (Anmol Publications, 2003), 45.
  14. ^ The Historians' History of the World By Henry Smith Williams - Page 439

Further reading[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]