Cessna 210 Centurion është një avion me gjashte vende, me performane te larte, me karrel uljeje ne piste me një motor ne aviacionin e përgjithshëm qe fluturoi për here te pare ne janar te 1957 dhe është prodhuar te Cessna qe nga 1985.
Dizajni dhe zhvillimi[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Cessna 210 e hershme (210 dhe 210A) ka pasur 4 vende me Continental IO-470 engine of 260. Ne thelb ishte një Cessna 182B to which was added a retractable landing gear, swept tail, and a new wing. Ne 1961 the fuselage and wing were completely redesigned - the fuselage was made wider and deeper, and a third side window was added. The wing planform remained the same (constant 64" chord from centerline to 100 out, then straight taper to 44" chord at 208 inches from centerline), but the semi-Fowler flaps (slotted, rear-moving) were extended outboard, from Wing Station 100 to Wing Station 122, which allowed a lower landing speed (FAA certification regulations state that a single-engine aircraft must have a flaps-down, power-off stall speed no greater than 70 miles/hour). To compensate for the reduced aileron span, the aileron profile was changed and its chord enlarged. The 1964 model 210D introduced a 285 engine and 2 small child seats, set into the cavity which contained the mainwheels aft of the passengers.
Ne 1967 modeli 210G futi një krah cantilever duke replacing the strut-braced wing. Its planform changed to a constant taper from root chord to tip chord. In 1970 the 210K became the first full 6-seat model. This was achieved by replacing the flat leaf-springs used for the retractable main landing gear struts (undercarriage) with tapered tubular steel struts of greater length. This allowed the tires to be nested farther to the rear of the fuselage, making room for the full size rear seats. Ne 1979 210N model eliminated the folding doors which previously covered the two retracted main wheels. The tubular spring struts retract into shallow channels along the bottom of the fuselage and the wheels fit snugly in closed depressions on the underside of the fuselage. Some models featured de-icing boots as an option.
Avioni was offered in a normally aspirated version, designated the model 210, as well as the turbocharged T210 and the pressurized P210 versions. The Centurion II was an option introduced in 1970 with improved avionics, and was available in both noramlly aspirated and turbocharged versions (Turbo Centurion II)
Ne 21 maj 2012 the airworthiness authority responsible for the design, the US Federal Aviation Administration, issued an emergency Airworthiness Directive requiring 3,665 of the cantilever wing Cessna 210s to be inspected for cracks in the spar cap, wing spar and wing. Aircraft with more than 10,000 hours of airframe time were grounded immediately pending a visual inspection.
Vazhdimësia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Ne nëntor 2007, Cessna acquired the assets of Columbia Aircraft Company. The Columbia 350 and 400 models were integrated into the Cessna single engine range and redesignated as the Cessna 350 and Cessna 400. Ky avion zevendesoi Cessna 210 at the top end of the Cessna single-engine model line.
Modifikimet[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
There are a wide range of modifications available for the Cessna 210, including :
- Aeronautical Engineers Australia has developed a life extension package for 210s suffering from wing spar carry-through beam corrosion.
- Aerospace Systems and Technologies offers a TKS technology weeping fluid ice protection system for the Cessna 210, models L, M and N.
- Crownair Aviation developed a “Centurion Edition” T210, which is a remanufactured aircraft introduced in November 2008 that features a glass cockpit and new engine along with other minor refinements.
- O&N Aircraft offers a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop conversion of the Pressurized Cessna P210N known as the "Silver Eagle".
- Vitatoe Aviation offers the TN550 conversion which uses a Continental IO-550P engine with an IO-520 turbocharger with dual intercoolers and a larger alternator.
Variantet[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Cessna 210 u prodhua ne 26 variante modelesh, C210, C210A-D, the Centurion C210E-H&J, Turbo Centurion T210F-H&J, the Centurion II C210K-N&R, the Turbo Centurion II T210K-N&R and the P210N&R. The 210N, T210N (turbocharged), and P210N (pressurized) versions were produced in the greatest quantity. The rarest and most expensive models were the T210R and P210R, which were produced only in small quantities in 1985-86.
Several modifications and optional fittings are also available including different engine installations, wing tip tanks, speed brakes, STOL kits and gear door modifications.
The early strut-winged Cessna 210B was developed into a fixed-gear aircraft known as the Cessna 205. This spawned an entirely new family of Cessna aircraft including the 206 and the eight seat 207.
- Four-seat production variant with a Continental IO-470-E engine, 40 degrees hydraulic flap, gear doors, introduced in 1960., first flown in 1957, 575 built.
- A 210 with a third cabin window on each side, introduced in 1961, 265 built.
- A 210A with a cut-down rear fuselage, a rear vision window and a Continental IO-470-S engine, introduced in 1962, 245 built.
- A 210B with some minor changes, introduced in 1963, 135 built.
- 210D Centurion
- A 210C fitted with a 285 Continental IO-520-A engine and increased take-off weight to 3100, introduced in 1964, 290 built.
- 210E Centurion
- A 210D with some minor changes, introduced in 1965, 205 built.
- 210F Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210E with some minor changes and optional 285 turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-C engine, introduced in 1966, 300 built.
- 210G Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210F with a strutless cantilever wing and modified rear window, increased take-off weight to 3300, introduced in 1967, 228 built.
- 210H Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210G with a new flap system and instrument panel, 210 built. Flap range decreased to 30 degrees, fuel capacity increased from 65. Introduced in 1968.
- 210J Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210H with reduced wing dihederal, different nose profile and a Continental IO-520-J (or TSIO-520H) engine, introduced in 1969, 200 built.
- 210K Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210J with rear changed to full seat to provide six seats, a IO-520-L engine with 300 limited to 5 minutes, landing gear changed, enlarged cabin with a single rear side window, weight increased to 3800, produced 1970-71, 303 built.
- 210L Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210K with nose-mounted landing lights, the electrical system changed to 24 volt, the engine driven hydraulic pump replaced with an electrical pump and a three bladed prop fitted. Improved aerodynamics led to an increase in approximately 8 in cruise speed. Produced 1972-76, 2070 built.
- 210M Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210L with an optional 310 TSIO-520-R engine and minor changes, produced 1977-80, 1381 built.
- 210N Centurion / Turbo Centurion
- A 210M with open wheel wells for main landing gear and minor changes. Although this change appeared only on the C210N, most early models have had gear doors removed due to extensive maintenance and handling problems, leaving them similar to the "N". Produced 1981-84, 1943 built.
- Stampa:Visible anchor
- A 210N with longer span stabiliser and minor changes, produced 1985-86, 112 built.
- P210N Pressurized Centurion
- A Turbo 210N with pressurized cabin, four windows each side, with a 310 Continental TSIO-520-AF engine, produced 1978-83, 834 built.
- P210R Pressurized Centurion
- A P210N with longer span stabilizer increased take-off weight and a 325 Continental TSIO-520-CE engine, produced 1985-86, 40 built.
- Riley Turbine P-210
- Conversion of pressurized Cessna 210P Centurion aircraft, fitted with a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-112, flat rated at 500.
Operatoret[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Civil[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Cessna 210 përdoret gjere ne fluturime shkollimi e trajnimi, operatoreve private, taksive ajrore dhe chartereve komerciale dhe kompanive.
Ushtarake[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Aksidente dhe incidente[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- While flying N6579X, an early model 210A, famed test pilot Scott Crossfield crashed and died in the woods of Ludville, Georgia on April 19, 2006. The National Transportation Safety Board established the probable cause as "The pilot's failure to obtain updated en route weather information, which resulted in his continued instrument flight into a widespread area of severe convective activity, and the air traffic controller's failure to provide adverse weather avoidance assistance, as required by Federal Aviation Administration directives, both of which led to the airplane's encounter with a severe thunderstorm and subsequent loss of control."
Specifikime (T210N Turbo Centurion II)[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Shih edhe[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Referenca[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Shenime[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Simpson 1991, pp. 103–104
- ^ Gabim referencash: Etiketë
<ref>e pavlefshme; asnjë tekst nuk u dha për refs e quajtura
- ^ Grady, Mary (21 May 2012). "FAA Issues Emergency AD For Cessna 210s". AVweb. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ Textron (November 2007): Textron's Cessna Aircraft Company to Acquire Assets of Columbia Aircraft. Vizituar në 28 Nëntor 2007.
- ^ Aeronautical Engineers AUstralia (March 2009): Aeronautical Engineers Australia - Modifications. Vizituar në 3 Mars 2009.
- ^ Collins, Richard L. (January 2006). "The Madness of Icing". Flying Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ Crownair Aviation (undated): AVIDYNE PARTNERS WITH SOUTHERN STAR & CROWNAIR TO GET STC FOR ENTEGRA GLASS COCKPIT RETROFIT IN CESSNA 210 SINGLE- ENGINE PISTON AIRCRAFT. Vizituar në 1 Tetor 2010.
- ^ FibreGlast Developments Corp (January 2004): January 2004: O&N Aircraft. Arkivuar nga Origjinali në 29 Shtator 2007. Vizituar në 19 Tetor 2007.
- ^ Bill Cox: Improving On A Good Thing The venerable Cessna P210N enjoys a welcome improvement. Vizituar në 20 Gusht 2012.
- ^ a b Federal Aviation Administration (February 2009): TYPE CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET NO. 3A21 Revision 47. Vizituar në 20 Mars 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g Danielle Bruckert and Oleg Roud (2008). Cessna 210 Training Manual. ISBN 978-0-557-01418-7.
- ^ Taylor 1982, p. 453
- ^ NTSB (September 2007): NTSB Probable Cause, Report CHI06MA115. Vizituar në 2 Qershor 2008.
Bibliografia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- John W. R. Taylor: Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Yearbooks 1982, ISBN 0-7106-0748-2
- R.W. Simpson: Airlife's General Aviation. England: Airlife Publishing 1991, ISBN 1-85310-194-X
Lidhje te jashtme[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
|Wikimedia Commons ka materiale multimediale në lidhje me: Cessna 210|
- FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet 3A21 Type Certificate Data Sheet for Cessna 210 models.