Giardia cell, SEM
(Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915
Giardia lamblia (synonim me Giardia intestinalis, Lamblia intestinalis dhe Giardia duodenalis) është një parazit flagellated protozoan që kolonizon dhe riprodhohet në intestine të vogla, që shkakton giardiasis. Paraziti i giardia njgjitet te epithelium te një ventral adhesive disc, dhe riprodhohet përmes binary fission. Giardiasis nuk përhapet përmes rrugëve të gjakut, nor does it spread to other parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, but remains confined to the lumen of the small intestine. Giardia trophozoites absorb their nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine, and are anaerobes. If the organism is split and stained, it has a very characteristic pattern that resembles a familiar "smiley face" symbol. Chief pathways of human infection include ingestion of untreated sewage, a phenomenon particularly common in many developing countries; contamination of natural waters also occurs in watersheds where intensive grazing occurs.
Ambjenti ku rritet[redakto]
Metabolizmin intracellular dhe biokimik[redakto]
Giardia relies on glucose as its major energy source and breaks glucose down into ethanol, acetate and carbon dioxide. However, it can also use arginine as an energy source. Giardia possesses unique biochemical pathways that suggest that it diverged from other eukaryotes at an early stage in evolution.
B vitamins and bile salts, as well as glucose, are necessary for Giardia to survive, and a low-carbohydrate diet was shown in mice to reduce the number of Giardia organisms present.
Manifestimi i infeksionit[redakto]
Nomenclature of Giardia species is difficult, as humans and other animals appear to have morphologically identical parasites.
People with recurring Giardia infections, particularly those with a lack of the Immunoglobulin A antibody, may develop chronic disease.
Menyra si të ruhemi[redakto]
Treatment of drinking water for Giardia is ordinarily indicated in wilderness regions in North America, although at least four researchers disagree with this statement, including Robert W. Derlet, a professor at the University of California-Davis School of Medicine, Timothy P. Welch and Thomas R. Welsh of Tulane Medical School and the Children's Hospital of Cincinnati respectively, and Robert Rockwell, a widely quoted writer who is an engineer by training.
Boiling suspect water for one minute is the surest method to make water safe to drink and kill disease-causing microorganisms like Giardia lamblia if in doubt about whether water is infected with the Giardia parasite.
Trajtimi dhe diagnoza[redakto]
Giardia lamblia infection in humans is frequently misdiagnosed. Accurate diagnosis requires an antigen test or, if that is unavailable, an ova and parasite examination of stool. Multiple stool examinations are recommended, since the cysts and trophozoites are not shed consistently. Given the difficult nature of testing to find the infection, including many false negatives, some patients should be treated on the basis of empirical evidence; treating based on symptoms.
Human infection is conventionally treated with metronidazole, tinidazole or nitazoxanide. Although Metronidazole is the current first-line therapy, it is mutagenic in bacteria and carcinogenic in mice, so should be avoided during pregnancy. It has not directly been linked to causing cancer in humans, only in other mammals, therefore appears safe. One of the most common alternative treatments is berberine sulfate (found in Oregon grape root, goldenseal, yellowroot, and various other plants).Stampa:Citation needed Berberine has been shown to have an antimicrobial and an antipyretic effect. Berberine compounds cause uterine stimulation, and so should be avoided in pregnancy. Continuously high dosing of berberine may lead to bradycardia and hypotension in some individuals.
|Drug||Treatment duration||Possible Side Effects|
|Metronidazole||5–7 ditë||Shije metalike; të përzihet; vomiting; dizziness; headache; disulfiram-like effect; neutropenia|
|Tinidazole||Një dozë evetme||Shije metalike; të përzihet; vomiting; belching; dizziness; headache; disulfiram-like effect|
|Nitazoxanide||3 ditë||Abdominal pain; diarrhea; vomiting; headache; yellow-green discolouration of urine|
|Albendazole||5 ditë||Dizziness; headache; fever; të përzihet; vomiting; temporary hair loss|
Table adapted from Huang, White.
Trajtimi te kafshët[redakto]
Seven genotypes have been recognised to date (A-G). Of these B is the most widespread. Only types A and B have been shown to be infectious to humans.
- ^ Oxford textbook of Medicine, Fourth Edition, Volume 1 (2003) Oxford University Press pp.759-760 ISBN 0-19-262922-0
- ^ Harrison's Internal Medicine, Harrison's Online Chapter 199 Protozoal intestinal infections and trochomoniasis
- ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Water pollution. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Mark McGinley and C. Cleveland. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC.
- ^ Tovar J (2003). "Mitochondrial remnant organelles of Giardia function in iron-sulphur protein maturation". Nature 426 (6963): 172–6. doi:10.1038/nature01945. PMID 14614504.
- ^ Giardia - MicrobeWiki. Microbewiki.kenyon.edu. Vizituar në 29 korrik 2010.
- ^ a b Brown DM, Upcroft JA, Edwards MR, Upcroft P (1998). "Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the ancient eukaryote Giardia duodenalis". International Journal for Parasitology 28 (1): 149–64. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00172-0. PMID 9504342.
- ^ Giardia and Giardiasis. New York: Plenum Press 1984, ISBN 0306415399 Stampa:Page needed
- ^ Gabim referencash: Etiketë
<ref>e pavlefshme; asnjë tekst nuk u dha për refs e quajtura
- ^ Cordingley FT, Crawford GP (1986). "Giardia infection causes vitamin B12 deficiency". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 16 (1): 78–9. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.1986.tb01127.x. PMID 3458451.
- ^ (2004) "Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia". Veterinary parasitology 126 (1–2): 219–34. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.09.002. PMID 15567586.
- ^ (2004) "Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis". Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz 47 (7): 698–704. doi:10.1007/s00103-004-0863-y. PMID 15254826.
- ^ Welch TP (2000). "Risk of giardiasis from consumption of wilderness water in North America: a systematic review of epidemiologic data". International Journal of Infectious Diseases 4 (2): 100–3. doi:10.1016/S1201-9712(00)90102-4. PMID 10737847.
- ^ Derlet, Robert W. "High Sierra Water: What is in the H20?" Sierra Nature Notes, Volume 3, April 2004.
- ^ Welch TR (2004). "Evidence-based medicine in the wilderness: the safety of backcountry water". Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 15 (4): 235–7. doi:[0235:EMITWT2.0.CO;2 10.1580/1080-6032(2004)015[0235:EMITWT]2.0.CO;2]. PMID 15636372. (Copy onn author's website.)
- ^ Wood, T.D. "Water: What Are the Risks?" REI Expert Advice, February 2008.
- ^ http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/emergencydisinfection.cfm Retrieved February 24, 2011
- ^ Curtis, Rick. "Outdoor Action Guide to Giardia, Lyme Disease and other 'post trip' Illnesses." Outdoor Action, 2005-2008.
- ^ Kaneda Y, Tanaka T, Saw T (1990). "Effects of berberine, a plant alkaloid, on the growth of anaerobic protozoa in axenic culture". The Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 15 (6): 417–23. PMID 2131648.
- ^ UpToDate (Lexi-Comp, Inc.) retrieved 28 August 2007Stampa:Verify source