Përdoruesi:Euriditi/LO

Nga Wikipedia, enciklopedia e lirë
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Lojwrat olimike verore 2012, zyrtarisht njohur si Games of the XXX Olympiad,[1] apo nw gjuhw jozyrtare si Lonwr 2012, fillan nw Londwr, Mberwria e Bashkar mw 27 korrik dhe vazhdan deri nw 12 gusht 2012. Lojwrat e para, futbolli i femrave illoi dy ditw mw parw nw 25 korrik.[2][3] Mw tepwr se 10,000 atletw nga 204 Komitete Olimpikw Kombwtarw morwn pjesw.[4]

Pas njw kwrkese tw drejtar nga ish-kampioni Olimpik Sebastian Coe dhe me pas nga kryebashkiaku i Londrws Ken Livingstone, Londra u zgjodh si qyteti pritws mw 6 korrik 2005 gjatw Mbledhjes sw 117 tw KON nw Singapor, duke mundur kantidaturat e tjera si Moska, New York City, Madridi dhe Parisi.[5] Londra wshtw qyteti i parw qw organizon Lojwrat olimpke tre herw, </ref>[6] having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.[7][8]


Construction in preparation for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, particularly themed towards sustainability.[9] The main focus is a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.[10] The Games also make use of venues which were already in place before the bid.[11]

The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly.[12][13][14] The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, also received near-universal acclaim.[15][16] During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal.[17] Great Britain achieved its highest tally of gold medals since 1908, finished third in the medal table, and Usain Bolt became the first sprinter to retain all three sprinting gold medals at consecutive Olympics. Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, and women's boxing was included as an event - meaning the Games became the first at which every country and sport included female competitors.[18]

Bidding process[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: Bids for the 2012 Summer Olympics.

By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee (IOC), nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics. These cities were Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, Paris and Rio de Janeiro.[19]

Since the United Kingdom hosted the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, three bids had been made for a British city to host the Summer Olympics – Birmingham for the 1992 Games and Manchester for the 1996 and 2000 Games. Preliminary planning for a possible London bid for the 2012 Olympics began in 1997.[20] The United Kingdom had successfully hosted the 1996 UEFA European Football Championships and the 2002 Commonwealth Games which regenerated a large part of east Manchester - both events satisfied the IOC that the United Kingdom as a whole could host large sporting events and generated impetus for the country to have a Golden Decade of sport.[21]

A London 2012 Olympics banner at the Monument in London

Then-Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, said his primary motivation for initiating and lobbying for the city's bid was to develop the East End of London, neglected for over thirty years.[22] On 18 May 2004, the IOC, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, reduced the number of cities to five: London, Madrid, Moscow, New York and Paris.[23]

All five cities submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004, and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005. The Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, and a report that one of the key members of the Paris bid team would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.[24]

On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities. Although these reports did not contain any scores or rankings, the evaluation report for Paris was considered the most positive, followed closely by London, which had narrowed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004 regarding Paris. New York and Madrid also received very positive evaluation reports.[25]

Lord Coe, the head of the London 2012 bid

Throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite to win the nomination, particularly as this was its third bid in recent history. Originally London was seen as lagging Paris by a considerable margin; however, the situation began to improve with the appointment of Lord Coe as new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004.[26]

In late August 2004, reports predicted a London and Paris tie in the 2012 bid.[27] In the final run-up to the 117th IOC Session, London and Paris appeared to be increasingly in a neck-and-neck race. On 1 July 2005, Jacques Rogge, when asked who the winner would be, told the assembled press: "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote. But my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less".[28]

On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York and Madrid. The final two cities left in contention were London and Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes, defeating Paris's 50.[29] The celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement.[30]

2012 Summer Olympics bidding results
City NOC Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Britania e Madhe 22 27 39 54
Paris Franca Franca 21 25 33 50
Madrid Spanja Spanja 20 32 31
New York City Flag of the United States.svg SHBA 19 16
Moscow Rusia Rusia 15

Development and preparation[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: 2012 Summer Olympic development.

The London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games (LOCOG) was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, and held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005.[31] The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, is in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) is in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure.[31] The latter was established in April 2006.[32]

The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a unit within the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), is the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics. It focuses on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that will benefit London and the UK. The organisation is also responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding.[33]

In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London[34] due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games,[35] in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots will not affect the Games.[36]

The IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2012 Games completed its tenth and final visit to London in March 2012. Its members concluded that "London is ready to host the world this summer".[37]

Venues[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will use a mixture of new venues, existing and historic facilities, and temporary facilities, some of them in well-known locations such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade. Some of the new facilities will be reused in their Olympic form, while others will be resized or relocated.[38]

The majority of venues have been divided into three zones within Greater London: the Olympic Zone, the River Zone and the Central Zone. In addition there are a few venues that, by necessity, are outside the boundaries of Greater London, such as the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy some 125 miles (200 km) southwest of London, which will host the sailing events. The football tournament will be staged at several grounds around the UK.[39] Work began on the Park in December 2006, when a sports hall in Eton Manor was pulled down.[40] The athletes' village in Portland was completed in September 2011.[41]

In November 2004, the 200-hectare (500-acre) Olympic Park plans were revealed.[42] The plans for the site were approved in September 2004 by Tower Hamlets, Newham, Hackney and Waltham Forest.[43] The redevelopment of the area to build the Olympic Park required compulsory purchase orders of property. The London Development Agency was in dispute with London and Continental Railways about the orders in November 2005. By May 2006, 86% of the land had been bought as businesses fought eviction.[44] Residents who opposed the eviction tried to find ways to stop it by setting up campaigns, but they had to leave as 94% of land was bought and the other 6% bought as a £9 billion regeneration project started.[45]


Aerial view of the Olympic Park in April 2012

There were some issues with the original venues not being challenging enough or being financially unviable. Both the Olympic road races and the mountain bike event were initially considered to be too easy, so they were eventually scheduled on new locations.[46][47] The Olympic marathon course, which was set to finish in the Olympic stadium, was moved to The Mall, since closing Tower Bridge was deemed to cause traffic problems in central London.[48] North Greenwich Arena 2 was scrapped in a cost-cutting exercise, Wembley Arena being used for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics events instead.[49][50][51][52]

Test events were held throughout 2011 and 2012, either through an existing championship such as 2012 Wimbledon Championships or as a specially created event held under the banner of London Prepares.[53]

Public transport[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The Olympic Javelin service runs between St Pancras and Ebbsfleet, via Stratford

London's public transport was an element of the bid which was scored poorly in the IOC's initial evaluation; however, they felt that if the improvements were delivered in time for the Games then London would cope.[54] Transport for London (TfL) carried out numerous improvements in preparation for 2012, including the expansion of the London Overground's East London Line, upgrades to the Docklands Light Railway and the North London Line,[55] and the introduction of a new "Javelin" high-speed rail service.[56] According to Network Rail, an additional 4,000 train services will run during the Games and train operators will put on longer trains during the day.[57] During the Games, Stratford International station will not be served by any international services,[58] westbound trains will not stop at Hackney Wick railway station,[59] and the Pudding Mill Lane DLR station will close entirely during the Games.[60] During the Games, some lanes on some roads in London will be dedicated to athletes, officials and VIPs.[61][62]

TfL has also built a £25 million cable car across the River Thames, the Emirates Air Line, to link 2012 Olympics venues.[63] It was inaugurated in June 2012 and crosses the Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks, carrying up to 2,500 passengers an hour, cutting journey times between the O2 arena and the ExCel exhibition centre and providing a crossing every 30 seconds.[64]

The plan was to have 80% of athletes travel less than 20 minutes to their event,[65] and 93% of them within 30 minutes of their event.[66] The Olympic Park would be served by ten separate railway lines with a combined capacity of 240,000 passengers per hour.[67] In addition, the LOCOG planned for 90% of the venues to be served by three or more types of public transport.[66] Two park-and-ride sites off the M25 with a combined capacity of 12,000 cars, were 25 minutes away from the Olympic Park. Another park-and-ride site was planned in Ebbsfleet with a capacity for 9,000 cars where spectators could board a 10-minute shuttle bus.[66] To get spectators to Eton Dorney, four park-and-ride schemes were set up.[68]

Concerns have been expressed at the logistics of spectators travelling to the events outside London. In particular, the sailing events at Portland did not have direct motorway connections, and local roads are heavily congested by tourist traffic in the summer.[69] However, a £77 million relief road connecting Weymouth to Dorchester was built and opened in 2011.[70][71] Some £16 million was put aside for the rest of the improvements.[72]

TfL have published information to encourage cycling as a mode of transport during the Games.[73] Cyclists, like motorists, are not permitted to ride in the designated Olympic Lanes on London streets. Some designated cycle paths such as the Lea Valley towpath are closed to the public during the Olympics.[74]

Financing[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The costs of mounting the Games are separate from those for building the venues and infrastructure, and redeveloping the land for the Olympic Park. While the Games are privately funded, the venues and Park costs are met largely by public money.

The original budget for the Games was £2.4 billion, but this was increased almost fourfold to about £9.3 billion ($14.46 billion) in 2007.[75] The revised figures were announced to the House of Commons on 15 March 2007 by Tessa Jowell. Along with East End regeneration costs, the breakdown was:

  • Building the venues and infrastructure — £5.3 billion
  • Elite sport and Paralympic funding — £400 million.
  • Security and policing — £600 million
  • Regeneration of the Lower Lea Valley — £1.7 billion
  • Contingency fund — £2.7 billion
  • VAT — £800 million.

Volunteers[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Unpaid volunteers known as Games Makers will perform a variety of tasks before and during the Games.[76] A target of 70,000 volunteers was set as early as 2004.[77] When recruitment took place in 2010, over 240,000 applications were received.[78] Sebastian Coe said in February 2012, "Our Games Makers will contribute a total of around eight million volunteer hours during the Games and the Games simply wouldn't happen without them".[79] The volunteers wear Olympic style clothing which includes purple and red shirts, jackets and fleeces. They also have to wear beige socks and trousers with beige-brown shoes. Volunteers also wear photo accreditation badges which are also worn by officials, athletes, family members and media which gain them access to specific venues and buildings around the site.

Ticketing[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Organisers estimated that some 8 million tickets would be available for the Olympic Games,[80] and 1.5 million tickets for the Paralympic Games.[80][81] LOCOG aimed to raise £375–£400 million in ticket sales. There were also free events such as marathon, triathlon and road cycling,[82] although, for the first time in Olympic history, the sailing events were ticketed.[83] Eventually, more than 7,000,000 tickets were sold.[84] Following IOC rules, people applied for tickets from the NOC of their country of residence. European Union residents were able to apply for tickets in any EU country.[85]

In Great Britain, ticket prices range from £20 for many events to £2,012 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. Free tickets were given to military personnel,[86] as well as to survivors and families of those who died during 7 July 2005 London bombings.[87] Initially, people were able to apply for tickets via a website from 15 March until 26 April 2011. There was a huge demand for tickets, with a demand of over three times the number of tickets available. The process was widely criticised as more than 50% of the sessions went to a random ballot,[88] and over half the people who applied got no tickets.[89] On 11 May 2012 a round of nearly one million "second chance" tickets went on sale over a 10-day period between 23 June and 3 July 2011.[90] About 1.7 million tickets available for football and 600,000 for other sports (including archery, hockey, football, judo, boxing and volleyball). Although technical difficulties were encountered, ten sports had sold out by 8 am of the first day.[91]

Countdown[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The Countdown Clock in Trafalgar Square

During the closing ceremony of the 2008 Olympics, the Olympic Flag was formally handed over from the Mayor of Beijing to the Mayor of London. This was followed by a section highlighting London,[92] One month later, the Olympic and Paralympic flags were raised outside the London City Hall.[93]

A countdown clock in Trafalgar Square was unveiled, 500 days before the Games.[94] The clock broke down the following day.[95] The countdown to the start of the Olympics began with a ceremony for the lighting of the Olympic flame in Olympia, Greece.[96]

Security[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The security operation is led by the police, with 10,000 officers available, supported by 13,500 members of the armed forces. Naval and air assets, including ships situated in the Thames, Eurofighter jets and surface-to-air missiles, will be deployed as part of the security operation. The cost of security has also increased from £282 million to £553 million. This will be the biggest security operation Britain has faced for decades. The figure of 13,500 armed forces personnel is more than Britain currently has deployed in Afghanistan.[97] The Metropolitan Police and the Royal Marines carried out security exercises in preparation for the Olympics on 19 January 2012, with 50 marine police officers in rigid inflatables and fast response boats, joined by up to 100 military personnel and a Lynx Navy helicopter.[98]

The Ministry of Defence distributed leaflets to residents of the Lexington building in Bow, announcing that a missile system was to be stationed on top of the water tower.[99][100] This caused concern to some residents.[99][100] The Ministry said it probably would use Starstreak missiles and that site evaluations had taken place, but that no final decision had taken place.[99][100]

It emerged in July 2012 that G4S, the firm responsible for supplying security staff for the Olympics, had been unable to recruit enough, so the shortfall would have to be made up by 3,500 UK military servicepeople. There were also media reports that G4S had failed to respond to people applying for jobs as security staff, that recruits were inadequately trained, that some were teenagers, and some were not fully conversant in English.

Medals[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Skeda:2012 Summer Olympics gold medal.jpg
The 2012 Summer Olympics gold medal

Approximately 4,700[101] Olympic and Paralympic medals have been produced by the Royal Mint at Llantrisant.[102] They were designed by David Watkins (Olympics) and Lin Cheung (Paralympics).[103] Virtually all the gold, silver and copper was mined in Salt Lake County, Utah in the U.S.[104] Each medal weighs 375–400 g (13.2–14.1 oz), has a diameter of 85 mm (3.34 in) and is 7 mm (0.27 in) thick, with the sport and discipline engraved on the rim.[105] The obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, stepping from the Panathinaiko Stadium that hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, with Parthenon in the background; the reverse features the Games logo, the River Thames and a series of lines representing "the energy of athletes and a sense of pulling together".[106] The medals were transferred to the Tower of London vaults on 2 July 2012 for storage.[105]

Each gold medal is made up of 92.5 percent silver and 1.34 percent gold, with the remainder copper. The silver medal (which represents second place) is made up of 92.5 percent silver, with the remainder copper. The bronze medal is made up of 97 percent copper, 2.5 percent zinc and 0.5 percent tin.[107] The value of the materials in the gold medal is about $644, the silver about $330, and the bronze about $4.71 on the current market.[108]

Torch relay[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay.

The Olympics torch relay ran from 19 May to 27 July 2012, before the Games. Plans for the relay were developed in 2010–11, with the torch-bearer selection process announced on 18 May 2011.[109] The Olympic flame arrived on flight BA2012 on 18 May 2012 from Greece.[110] The relay lasted 70 days, with 66 evening celebrations and six island visits, and involved about 8,000 people carrying the torch a distance of about 8,000 miles (12,800 km), starting from Land's End in Cornwall.[111] The torch had one day outside of the United Kingdom when it visited Dublin on 6 June.[112] The relay was focusing on National Heritage Sites, locations and venues with sporting significance, key sporting events, schools registered with the Get Set School Network, green spaces and biodiversity, Live Sites (city locations with large screens), festivals and other events.[113]

Environmental policy[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The Olympic Park was planned to incorporate 45 hectares of wildlife habitat, with a total of 525 bird boxes, and 150 bat boxes. Local waterways and riverbanks were enhanced as part of the process.[114] Renewable energy also features at the Olympics. It was originally planned to provide 20% of the energy for the Olympic Park and Village from renewable technologies; however, this may now be as little as 9%.[115] Proposals to meet the original target included large-scale on-site wind turbines and hydroelectric generators in the River Thames. These plans were scrapped for safety reasons.[116] The focus has since moved to installing solar panels on some buildings, and providing the opportunity to recover energy from waste. Food packaging at the Olympics is made from compostable materials – like starch and cellulose-based bioplastics – where it cannot be re-used or recycled. This includes fast food wrappers, sandwich boxes and drink cartons. After they have been used, many of these materials will be suitable for anaerobic digestion (AD), allowing them to be made into renewable energy.[117]

Cultural Olympiad[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: 2012 Cultural Olympiad.

The Olympic Charter, the set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games and for governing the Olympic Movement, states that

"LOCOG shall organise a programme of cultural events which must cover at least the entire period during which the Olympic Village is open."[118]

The Cultural Olympiad comprises many programmes, with over 500 events spread over four years across the whole of the United Kingdom, and culminating in the London 2012 Festival.[119][120]

Opening ceremony[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics was held on 27 July and called "Isles of Wonder".[121] Oscar-winning director Danny Boyle was its artistic director, with the music directors being the electronic music duo Rick Smith and Karl Hyde of Underworld.[122]

The Games were officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[123] It was the second Games the Queen had opened personally, the first being the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. All successive Olympics held in Canada or Australia have been opened by their respective governors-general.

A short comic film starring Daniel Craig as secret agent James Bond and the Queen as herself was screened during the ceremony,[124] as was a gentle mockery of the event in the shape of Rowan Atkinson playing Chariots of Fire.

Sir Paul McCartney performed the song "Hey Jude" at the end of the ceremony.[125][126]

The official BARB ratings give the opening ceremony a rating of 24.24 million viewers, the highest audience for any British television broadcast since 1996.[127]

Closing ceremony[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The closing ceremony of the London 2012 Summer Olympics is scheduled to take place on 12 August 2012. The ceremony is planned to include a handover of the Olympic flag by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, to Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, the host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics.[128]

The Games[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Participants[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Team sizes
██ 300+ ██ 100+ ██ 30+ ██ 10+ ██ 4+ ██ 1+

Around 10,500 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) are expected to participate,[4] surpassing the 1948 Summer Olympics in London and the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester as the largest multi-sport event ever to be held in the United Kingdom.[129]

Three athletes from the Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee, which had its membership withdrawn by the IOC Executive Committee at the IOC session of June 2011, and one athlete from South Sudan, which has no recognized NOC, participated independently under the Olympic flag.[130]

Participating NOCs

Sorted by number of athletes[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Sports[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The 2012 Summer Olympic programme features 26 sports and a total of 39 disciplines:

For the first time, women's boxing is included in the programme, with 36 athletes competing in three different weight classes. There is a special dispensation to allow the various shooting events to go ahead, which would otherwise be illegal under UK gun law.[338][339] In Tennis, mixed doubles returns to the Olympic programme for the first time since 1924.[340]

London's bid featured 28 sports, in line with other recent Summer Olympics, but the IOC voted to drop baseball and softball from the 2012 Games two days after it selected London as the host city. The IOC reinforced its decision to drop both sports during the 2006 Winter Olympics, after they lost votes for reconsideration, and were last scheduled for Games at the 2008 Olympics.[341] Following the decision to drop the two sports, the IOC held a vote on whether or not to replace them. The sports considered were karate, squash, golf, roller sports and rugby sevens. Karate and squash were the two final nominees, but neither received enough votes to reach the required two-thirds majority.[341]

Although formal demonstration sports were eliminated following the 1992 Summer Olympics,[342] special tournaments for non-Olympic sports can be run during the Games, such as the Wushu tournament at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[343] There were attempts to run Twenty20 cricket,[343] and netball[344] tournaments parallel with the 2012 Games, but neither campaign was successful.

Calendar[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Stampa:Seealso The final official schedule was released on 15 February 2011.[345] Stampa:2012 Summer Olympics calendar

World records[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Date Event Athlete Nation Record description Ref
27 July 2012 Archery – Men's individual Im Dong-Hyun Stampa:FlagIOC Scored a world record of 699 in the ranking round [346]
27 July 2012 Archery – Men's team Im Dong-Hyun
Kim Bub-Min
Oh Jin-Hyek
Stampa:FlagIOC Scored a world record of 2087 in the ranking round [346]
28 July 2012 Rowing – Men's coxless pair Eric Murray
Hamish Bond
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 6:08.50 in the heats [347]
28 July 2012 Swimming – Women's 400 metre individual medley Ye Shiwen Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 4:28.43 in the final [348]
29 July 2012 Weightlifting – Women's 53 kg Zulfiya Chinshanlo Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record at clean and jerk of 131 kg [349]
29 July 2012 Swimming – Women's 100 metre butterfly Dana Vollmer Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 55.98 [350]
29 July 2012 Swimming – Men's 100 metre breaststroke Cameron van der Burgh Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 58.46 [351]
30 July 2012 Weightlifting – Men's 62 kg Kim Un-Guk Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record at total of 327 kg [352]
1 August 2012 Swimming – Men's 200 metre breaststroke Dániel Gyurta Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 2:07.28 [353]
1 August 2012 Weightlifting – Men's 77 kg Lü Xiaojun Stampa:FlagIOC Set world record at snatch of 175 kg
Set world record at total of 379 kg
[354]
1 August 2012 Swimming – Women's 200 metre breaststroke Rebecca Soni Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 2:20.00 in the semi-final. [353]
2 August 2012 Cycling – Women's team sprint Victoria Pendleton
Jessica Varnish
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 32.526 in the qualification.
2 August 2012 Cycling – Women's team sprint Gong Jinjie
Guo Shuang
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 32.447 in the qualification.
Set a world record time of 32.422 in the first round.
[355]
2 August 2012 Cycling – Men's team pursuit Ed Clancy
Geraint Thomas
Steven Burke
Peter Kennaugh
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 3:52.499 in the qualification.
Set a world record time of 3:51.659 in the final.
[356]
2 August 2012 Cycling – Men's team sprint Philip Hindes
Chris Hoy
Jason Kenny
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 42.747 in the first round.
Set a world record time of 42.600 in the final.
[357]
2 August 2012 Swimming – Women's 200 metre breaststroke Rebecca Soni Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 2:19.59 in the final. [358]
3 August 2012 Cycling – Women's team pursuit Danielle King
Laura Trott
Joanna Rowsell
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 3:15.669 in the qualification.
3 August 2012 Shooting – Men's 50 metre rifle prone Sergei Martynov Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record result of 705.5 in the final.
3 August 2012 Swimming – Women's 200 metre backstroke Missy Franklin Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 2:04.06 in the final.
4 August 2012 Shooting – Women's trap Jessica Rossi Stampa:FlagIOC Scored a world record of 75 in the qualification.
Scored a world record of 99 in the final.
4 August 2012 Cycling – Women's team pursuit Danielle King
Laura Trott
Joanna Rowsell
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 3:14.682 in the first round.
Set a world record time of 3:14.051 in the final.
4 August 2012 Swimming – Men's 1500 metre freestyle Sun Yang Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 14:31.02 in the final. [359]
4 August 2012 Swimming – Women's 4 × 100 metre medley relay Missy Franklin
Rebecca Soni
Dana Vollmer
Allison Schmitt
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 3:52.05 in the final.
4 August 2012 Weightlifting – Men's 94 kg Ilya Ilin Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record at clean and jerk of 233 kg.
Set a world record total of 418 kg.
[360]
5 August 2012 Weightlifting – Women's +75 kg Tatiana Kashirina Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record at snatch of 151 kg.
5 August 2012 Weightlifting – Women's +75 kg Zhou Lulu Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record total of 333 kg.
9 August 2012 Athletics – Men's 800 metres David Rudisha Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 1:40.91 in the final.
10 August 2012 Athletics – Women's 4 × 100 metres relay Tianna Madison
Allyson Felix
Bianca Knight
Carmelita Jeter
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 40.82 in the final.
11 August 2012 Athletics – Women's 20 kilometres walk Elena Lashmanova Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 1:25:02.
11 August 2012 Athletics – Men's 4 × 100 metres relay Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
Stampa:FlagIOC Set a world record time of 36.84 in the final.

Medal count[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: 2012 Summer Olympics medal table.

2012 Summer Olympics medal table

Key
* Denotes the host nation (Great Britain)

Broadcasting[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The host broadcaster is Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS), an agency of the IOC. It is using its own cameras, and crews subcontracted from other Olympic broadcasters, to cover the events. The base video and audio has then been sold to other broadcasters, who add their own commentary and presentation.

The official recording format of the 2012 Olympic Games uses Panasonic's digital technologies, with the official video being produced and distributed from the International Broadcast Centre in 1080/50i High-Definition (HD) format. Panasonic announced that DVCPRO HD would be the official recording format. Olympic Broadcasting Services London (OBSL), the host broadcaster, will use P2 HD series equipment to support the broadcast of the competition.[361]

In accordance with the IOC's wish to provide over-the-air television coverage to as broad a worldwide audience as possible, London 2012 is being broadcast by a number of national and regional broadcasters. In the host nation, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) carries the Olympics, while Channel 4 will broadcast the Paralympics. The BBC aims to broadcast by various channels all 5,000 hours of the Olympic Games.[362] In addition to extended hours on BBC Three so that it can show Olympic events in the daytime (which has involved temporarily closing BBC Parliament's Freeview channel, no fewer than 24 additional BBC Olympics channels are available via cable, satellite and the internet in the UK.

The United States television rights, currently owned by NBC, account for over half the rights revenue for the IOC.[book 1] Thousands of Americans, however, have chosen to access the BBC's omnibus coverage using proxy servers, or VPNs.[363] The operations of broadcasters granted rights to the Games are hosted in the dedicated International Broadcast Centre, inside the security cordon of the Olympic Park. YouTube will live stream the Games in 64 territories in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where no official broadcaster was chosen.[364] This content is also viewable on YouTube's mobile and Xbox Live, as well as via iOS and Android applications.[365]

Marketing[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: 2012 Summer Olympics marketing.

"Survival", a single released by the English band Muse, will be the official song of the Olympics.[366] In August 2009, the Royal Mail commissoned artists and illustrators to create 30 stamps which were released in batches of 10 during 2009 to 2011.[367] On 22 July 2011, the last of the 30 stamps were released.[368] Two £5 coins have been made to mark London 2012 Olympics designed by Saiman Miah.[369] As with other Olympics since 1952, the Royal Mint will strike a set of commemorative one-kilogram gold and silver coins.[370]

Logo and graphics[redakto | përpunoni burim]

There have been two London 2012 logos: one for the bidding process created by Kino Design and a second as the brand for the Games themselves. The former is a ribbon with blue, yellow, black, green and red stripes winding through the text "LONDON 2012", making the shape of the River Thames in East London. The latter, designed by Wolff Olins, was published on 4 June 2007 as a representation of the number 2012, with the Olympic Rings embedded within the zero.[371]

Public reaction to the logo in a June 2007 BBC poll was largely negative, with more than 80% of votes giving the logo the lowest possible rating.[372] Several newspapers ran their own logo competitions, displaying alternative submissions from their readers,[373] while several writers from news agencies criticised the logo.[374][373] A segment of animated footage released at the same time as the logo was reported to trigger seizures in a small number of people with photosensitive epilepsy, and in response, a short segment was removed from the London 2012 website.[375] In February 2011, Iran complained that the logo appeared to spell out the word "Zion" and threatened to boycott the Olympics, but eventually did not boycott.[376]

The official London 2012 Olympic typeface is called Headline 2012. The font has also met with criticism, including being selected for the first place slot in the "8 Worst Fonts in the World" in Simon Garfield's 2010 book "Just My Type", with the comment "the uncool font is based on jaggedness and crudeness, not usually considered attributes where sport is concerned."[377]

Mascots[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: Wenlock and Mandeville.
The Olympic Mascots, Mandeville (left) and Wenlock (right)

The official mascots for the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games were unveiled on 19 May 2010.[378] Wenlock and Mandeville are animations depicting two drops of steel from a steelworks in Bolton.[378] They are named after the Shropshire town of Much Wenlock, which held a forerunner of the current Olympic Games, and Stoke Mandeville, a village in Buckinghamshire where a forerunner to the Paralympic Games were first held.[378] The writer Michael Morpurgo wrote the story concept to the mascots, and an animation was produced;[379] Two stories have been created about the mascots: Out Of A Rainbow and Adventures On A Rainbow.[380]

In response to their launch the UK's leading design publication Creative Review had this to say: "Both are clearly of the digital age. And we have to say, we think they look rather good...".[381] In other quarters their design has been greeted with some disdain. One columnist theorised that the pair were the product of a "drunken one-night stand between a Teletubby and a Dalek".[382] Others have compared the mascots to Izzy, the mascot of the 1996 Summer Olympics, another critically panned mascot.[383] Still others have remarked that the pair resembles Kang and Kodos from the cartoon The Simpsons.[384] However it has been reported that children of the target audience (5 to 15 years) find the duo appealing.[385]

Chariots of Fire[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The 1981 Best Picture Oscar–winning film Chariots of Fire, which depicts Britain's athletics successes in the 1924 Olympics, is also a recurring theme in promotions for the 2012 London Olympics.[386] As an official part of the London 2012 Festival celebrations, a new digitally re-mastered version of Chariots of Fire, released on 13 July 2012, was screened in over 100 cinemas throughout the UK.[387] A 2012 stage adaptation of the same title also coincides with the Olympics, opening 9 May at London's Hampstead Theatre and transferring to the West End on 23 June.[388] The film's theme tune was also performed by the London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Simon Rattle, during the Opening Ceremony of the games; the performance was accompanied by a comedic skit by Rowan Atkinson which included the opening beach-running footage from the film.[389] A new orchestration of the film's theme tune is also played during each victory ceremony of the 2012 Olympics.[390]

Sponsors[redakto | përpunoni burim]

The London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) and the IOC (IOC) have agreed to sponsorship deals with several companies (see "2012 Summer Olympics marketing#Sponsors"). The sponsors are assigned one of four categories; worldwide, tier one, tier two and tier three.[391] The worldwide partners are: Acer, Atos, Coca-Cola, Dow, General Electric, McDonald's, Omega SA, Panasonic, Procter & Gamble, Samsung, Visa.[391] The companies have cumulatively provided £1.4bn of funding, allocated evenly between the IOC and LOCOG.[392]

Controversies[redakto | përpunoni burim]

There have been several controversies during the lead-up to the Games, including sponsorship, the athletes' use of social media, and several political issues. Greek triple jumper Paraskevi Papachristou was expelled from the Games prior to the official commencement because of a Twitter message that was viewed as racist.[393]

Although thousands of people failed to secure seats for the events they wanted following a complicated lottery process, a large number of empty seats were observed during the first days, including at some of the most popular events. This was speculated to be due to corporate sponsors which had been provided with tickets, but which weren’t using them fully.[84]

Drug testing[redakto | përpunoni burim]

It was announced prior to the Summer Games that half of all competitors are to be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the Games and the end of the Paralympic Games.[394] In addition, every competitor who wins a medal will also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory will test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.[394] Albanian weightlifter Hysen Pulaku became the first athlete to be tested positive.[395] Gymnast Luiza Galiulina[396] and runner Tameka Williams were also suspended.[397]

See also[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Stampa:Portal bar

References[redakto | përpunoni burim]

  1. ^ The IOC numbers the Olympiads by Roman numerals.
  2. ^ "International Olympic Committee". IOC. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 1 August 2008. Marrë më 3 August 2008. 
  3. ^ "BBC Sport – London 2012". BBC. 
  4. ^ a b "Olympics – Countries". BBC Sport. Marrë më 19 July 2012. From the 27th of July 2012 – 204 countries will send more than 10,000 athletes to compete in 300 events 
  5. ^ "London 2012: Election". International Olympic Committee. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 4 October 2009. Marrë më 2 October 2009. 
  6. ^ Athens has also hosted three IOC-organised events, in 1896, 2004 and the Intercalated Games in 1906. However, the 1906 Games are no longer officially recognised by the IOC, as they do not fit with the quadrennial pattern of the modern Olympics.
  7. ^ Barden, Mark (26 April 2008). "London's first Olympics". BBC Sport. Marrë më 3 August 2008. 
  8. ^ "The 1948 London Olympics Gallery". BBC History. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 18 July 2008. Marrë më 3 August 2008. 
  9. ^ "Building a sustainable Games". London 2012. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 18 October 2009. Marrë më 2 October 2009. 
  10. ^ "Newham London: The Olympic Park". London Borough of Newham. Marrë më 1 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Response to the questionnaire for cities applying to become Candidate cities to host the Games of the XXX Olympiad and the Paralympic Games in 2012" (PDF). London 2012 Ltd. Marrë më 29 July 2012. 
  12. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19233495
  13. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/london-2012-olympics-blog/2012/aug/12/has-olympics-changed-london-2012
  14. ^ http://www.calgaryherald.com/sports/2012-summer-games/Buoyed+record+medal+haul+suprisingly+sunny/7072134/story.html
  15. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/9434563/London-2012-the-experts-view-of-the-Olympic-opening-ceremony.html
  16. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2012/jul/27/olympics-opening-ceremony-view-from-abroad
  17. ^ London 2012: Michael Phelps becomes the greatest Olympian retrieved 11 August 2012
  18. ^ "London 2012 international digest - Day Six". BBC Sport. 2 August 2012. Marrë më 11 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "Olympic bids: The rivals". BBC Sport. 15 July 2003. Marrë më 3 August 2008. 
  20. ^ "London 2012 Olympics". politics.co.uk. Marrë më 20 July 2012. 
  21. ^ "Can Britain stage the Olympics?". BBC News. 5 August 2002. Marrë më 20 July 2012. 
  22. ^ "Mayor Ken in Olympics bid revelation". Metro. London. 14 October 2011. Marrë më 8 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "London bid team delighted". BBC Sport. 18 May 2004. Marrë më 3 August 2008. 
  24. ^ "Day One Of Paris 2012 Inspection By IOC". GamesBids. Marrë më 9 March 2005. 
  25. ^ "Paris, London and New York Get Glowing IOC Reports". GamesBids. Marrë më 6 June 2005. 
  26. ^ Payne, Michael. "How London really won the games". London Business School. Marrë më 24 June 2012. 
  27. ^ "London And Paris Tie In 2012 Bid". GamesBids. Marrë më 31 August 2004. 
  28. ^ "Rogge Arrives in Singapore". International Sailing Federation. 1 July 2005. Marrë më 6 March 2007. 
  29. ^ "London beats Paris to 2012 Games". BBC News. 6 July 2005. 
  30. ^ Culf, Andrew (6 July 2005). "The party that never was: capital marks the games at last—Eight weeks after Olympic celebrations were cut short by bombings, London puts on a low-key spectacle to show it means business". The Guardian. London. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 2 October 2008. Marrë më 22 August 2008. 
  31. ^ a b London Development Agency, http://www.lda.gov.uk/news-and-events/media-centre/press-releases/2005/locog-formally-established-at-first-meeting-of-london-2012-transition-board.aspx, <http://www.lda.gov.uk/news-and-events/media-centre/press-releases/2005/locog-formally-established-at-first-meeting-of-london-2012-transition-board.aspx>. Retrieved on 15 tetor 2011 
  32. ^ London 2012, http://www.london2012.com/news/2006/07/lemley-chairs-first-oda-board-meeting.php, <http://www.london2012.com/news/2006/07/lemley-chairs-first-oda-board-meeting.php>. Retrieved on 15 tetor 2011 
  33. ^ "2012 Olympic Games & Paralympic Games". Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  34. ^ Macur, Juliet; Pfanner, Eric (9 August 2011). "London Rioting Prompts Fears Over Soccer and Olympics". The New York Times. Marrë më 11 August 2011. 
  35. ^ Foster, Peter (9 August 2011). "London riots: China raises questions over safety of 2012 Olympic Games". The Daily Telegraph. London. Marrë më 11 August 2011. 
  36. ^ Jackson, Jamie (9 August 2011). "London riots will not affect 2012 Olympic security, says IOC". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 11 August 2011. 
  37. ^ "London is ready to host the Olympic Games as excitement builds". Olympic.org. Marrë më 13 April 2012. 
  38. ^ "London 2012". Excel London. 6 July 2005. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  39. ^ "Olympics 2012 venue guide". BBC News. 3 December 2008. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  40. ^ "Work begins on 2012 Olympic Park". BBC News. 14 December 2006. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  41. ^ "Osprey Quay Olympic village topping out ceremony". BBC News. 13 September 2011. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  42. ^ "London reveals Olympic Park plans". BBC Sport. 8 November 2004. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  43. ^ "2012 Olympic Park gets go ahead". BBC News. 9 September 2004. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  44. ^ "Probe into Olympic land evictions". BBC News. 9 May 2006. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  45. ^ Assistant Producer, Building the Olympic Dream (11 March 2009). "Stratford's last stand". BBC Sport. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  46. ^ "Road cycling". London2012. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  47. ^ "Essex venue to host 2012 biking". BBC Sport. 11 August 2008. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  48. ^ Gibson, Owen (4 October 2010). "London 2012 marathon to finish at The Mall despite East End protests". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  49. ^ "Greenwich or Wembley?". BBC News. 17 October 2008. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  50. ^ Henson, Mike (15 June 2009). "Boxing chiefs voice 2012 concerns". BBC Sport. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  51. ^ "Wembley may stage Olympic boxing". BBC Sport. 23 April 2009. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  52. ^ "Badminton and rhythmic gymnastics agree to London 2012 Wembley move". More than the Games. 26 May 2010. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  53. ^ "London 2012 test events unveiled". BBC News. 24 February 2011. 
  54. ^ "Report of the IOC Evaluation Commission for the Games of the XXX Olympiad in 2012" (PDF). Olympic.org. Marrë më 23 June 2012. 
  55. ^ "London Olympics Transport Upgrade". Railway Technology. 15 June 2011. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  56. ^ "High-speed rail links confirmed". BBC News. 27 October 2004. 
  57. ^ "Extra trains planned for visitors to London 2012 venues". BBC News. 25 May 2011. 
  58. ^ "Eurostar 'will not stop' at Stratford International". BBC News. 25 May 2010. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  59. ^ "Hackney Wick". Get Ahead of the Games. Trasnport for London. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  60. ^ "Pudding Mill Lane". Get Ahead of the Games. Transport for London. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  61. ^ Olympic and Paralympic route network, TfL
  62. ^ Beard, Matthew (15 November 2011). "Revealed: the road signs that will ban drivers from Olympic lanes". London Evening Standard. 
  63. ^ "Thames cable car to link 2012 Olympic Games venues". BBC News. 4 July 2010. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 7 July 2010. Marrë më 4 July 2010. 
  64. ^ Transport for London (4 July 2010), http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/16125.aspx, <http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/16125.aspx>. Retrieved on 5 korrik 2010 
  65. ^ "Going for Gold: Transport for London's 2012 Olympic Games" (PDF). House of Commons Transport Committee. 8 March 2006. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c "London plan at-a-glance". BBC Sport. 6 July 2005. 
  67. ^ "Free travel plan for Olympic bid". BBC News. 5 July 2004. 
  68. ^ "Olympics 2012: Park and ride schemes for Dorney Lake events". BBC News. 14 September 2011. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  69. ^ "2012 London Olympic Games | London Chauffeur Limo Service". Panamerican Chauffeurs. 6 July 2005. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  70. ^ "Go-ahead won for £77m relief road". BBC News. 5 April 2007. 
  71. ^ "Weymouth Olympic relief road is opened". BBC News. 17 March 2011. 
  72. ^ "Olympics road plans put on show". BBC News. 24 October 2009. 
  73. ^ "Cycling". Get Ahead of the Games. TfL. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  74. ^ Tuffrey, Laurie (10 July 2012). "Olympics regulations force cyclists to dismount". London: The Guardian. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  75. ^ Pearman, Hugh (25 July 2012). "These Knock-Down, Shrinkable Games". The Wall Street Journal. f. D6. Marrë më 25 July 2012. 
  76. ^ "Volunteering – Making the Games happen". London 2012. Marrë më 15 April 2012. 
  77. ^ Shifrin, Tash (10 February 2004). "Olympic appeal as volunteer target hit". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 15 April 2012. 
  78. ^ "10 Games Maker facts". London 2012. Marrë më 15 April 2012. 
  79. ^ "Volunteers training day at Wembley Stadium as they prepare for Games". The Daily Telegraph. London. 4 February 2012. Marrë më 15 April 2012. 
  80. ^ a b "Just the ticket". London 2012. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 2007-02-02. Marrë më 20 July 2012. 
  81. ^ "Hot ticket! Paralympic sales outshine expectations with many sessions sold out". Daily Mail. Marrë më 20 July 2012. 
  82. ^ "London Opens Ticket Process for 2012 Olympics". ABC News. Marrë më 20 May 2010. 
  83. ^ ISAF (28 July 2011). "ISAF: London 2012 Olympic Games Sailing Competition: What Is The Weymouth And Portland International Regatta?". Sailing.org. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  84. ^ a b Adam, Karla (30 July 2012). "At London Olympics, empty seats have organizers scrambling, giving away tickets to children and soldiers". The Washington Post. 
  85. ^ Lynn, Guy (22 May 2012). "Ukrainian Olympic official 'willing to sell tickets to black market'". BBC News. Marrë më 8 June 2012. 
  86. ^ "Olympic tickets offered to UK Armed Forces members". BBC News. 14 June 2011. 
  87. ^ "2012 Olympic tickets for 7/7 bomb attack victims". BBC News. 6 May 2011. 
  88. ^ "Olympic ticket demand passes 20m". BBC News. 27 April 2011. 
  89. ^ "750,000 Olympics tickets sold in 'second chance' round". BBC News. 3 July 2011. 
  90. ^ "Olympic tickets on sale in 'second chance' phase". BBC News. 11 July 2011. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 18 July 2011. Marrë më 17 August 2011. 
  91. ^ "2012 Hopefuls miss out on tickets". BBC News. 26 June 2011. 
  92. ^ Eight minute wonder (17 June 2008). "The BBC". The BBC. Marrë më 20 May 2010. 
  93. ^ "1948 Olympians and 2012 hopefuls join Beijing heroes as Olympic and Paralympic flags raised at City Hall". Legacy.london.gov.uk. 26 September 2008. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  94. ^ "London 2012 countdown clock stops in Trafalgar Square". BBC News. 15 March 2011. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 18 March 2011. Marrë më 15 March 2011. 
  95. ^ Murray, Scott; Murrells, Katy (27 July 2011). "London 2012: The 'One Year To Go' Celebrations – as they happened". The Guardian. London. 
  96. ^ "Olympic flame lit for London Games". The Times Of India. Marrë më 10 May 2012. 
  97. ^ "London 2012: 13,500 troops to provide Olympic security". BBC News. 15 December 2011. 
  98. ^ Seida, Jim (19 January 2012). "Metropolitan Police and the Royal Marines perform security exercises in preparation for London Olympics". MSNBC.
  99. ^ a b c Booth, Robert (29 April 2012). "London rooftops to carry missiles during Olympic Games". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 29 April 2012. 
  100. ^ a b c "London Olympics 2012: MoD rooftop missile base plan alarms local residents". The Daily Telegraph. London. 29 April 2012. Marrë më 29 April 2012.  [lidhje e thyer]
  101. ^ "London 2012 Olympic Games victory medals to be made by the Royal Mint". Royalmint.com. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  102. ^ "London 2012 medals deal struck for Royal Mint in Llantrisant". BBC News. 14 December 2010. 
  103. ^ "London 2012: Olympic medals go into production in Wales". BBC News. 27 October 2011. Marrë më 4 July 2012. 
  104. ^ "Kennecott donating $7.3 million in gold, silver, bronze for Olympics". KSL.com. Marrë më 25 July 2012. 
  105. ^ a b "London 2012: Olympic medals locked in Tower". BBC News. 2 July 2012. Marrë më 4 July 2012. 
  106. ^ "London 2012: Olympic medals timeline". BBC News. 26 July 2011. 
  107. ^ DeMarco, Anthony (26 July 2012). "London's Olympic Gold Medal Worth The Most In The History Of The Games". Forbes. Marrë më 30 July 2012. 
  108. ^ "How much is a medal actually worth? Not as much as you'd think". Yardbarker.com. 30 July 2012. 
  109. ^ Magnay, Jacquelin (17 May 2011). "London 2012 torch relay should focus on youth". The Daily Telegraph. London. Marrë më 17 May 2011. 
  110. ^ "The Olympic Torch Relay". LOCOG. 18 May 2011. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 8 June 2011. Marrë më 18 May 2011. 
  111. ^ "London 2012 Olympic torch relay route revealed". BBC News. 18 May 2011. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 18 May 2011. Marrë më 18 May 2011. 
  112. ^ "Dublin to host Olympic Torch'". Irish Times. Dublin. 8 December 2011. 
  113. ^ "London Culture and 2012 Open Meeting" (PDF). london.gov.uk. Marrë më 19 May 2011. 
  114. ^ "New biodiversity plan sets out future for Olympic Park wildlife". London 2012. 27 February 2009. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 9 March 2009. Marrë më 5 March 2009. 
  115. ^ "London 2012 Olympics 'to miss renewable energy target'". BBC News. 11 April 2011. Marrë më 7 June 2011. 
  116. ^ "Olympic Games site wind turbine scrapped". BBC News. 4 June 2010. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 19 May 2011. Marrë më 7 June 2011. 
  117. ^ "Compostable bioplastics set for big win at London Olympics". NNFCC. 31 May 2011. Marrë më 31 May 2011. 
  118. ^ "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 11 February 2010. f. 80. Marrë më 6 May 2011. 
  119. ^ "Cultural Olympiad". London 2012. Marrë më 27 March 2012. 
  120. ^ Brown, Mark (12 March 2012). "Cultural Olympiad 2012 reaches the critical masses". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 27 March 2012. 
  121. ^ "London 2012 Olympics opening ceremony called 'The Isles of Wonder'". Olympics Medal Tally. 27 January 2012. 
  122. ^ "Underworld announced as Music Directors for the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympic Games". Underworld. No date.  Shiko vlerat e datave në: |date= (ndihmë)
  123. ^ "Young athletes light London 2012 Olympic flame". BBC News. 28 July 2012. 
  124. ^ Child, Ben (2 April 2012). "London 2012: Daniel Craig to open Olympics as James Bond". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 2 April 2012. 
  125. ^ Martin, Dan (6 June 2012). "Paul McCartney to close London Olympics opening ceremony". The Guardian. London. Marrë më 12 June 2012. 
  126. ^ Hirst, Michael; Minard, Jenny; Jeavans, Christine (27 July 2012). "London Olympic Games opening ceremony". BBC Sport. Marrë më 27 July 2012. 
  127. ^ "Weekly Top 30 Programmes w/e 29 Jul 2012". BARB. 10 August 2012. 
  128. ^ "Closing Ceremony". London 2012. Marrë më 20 July 2012. 
  129. ^ Hubbard, Alan (12 December 1999). "City of Manchester Stadium: The Wembley rescuers". The Independent. London. Marrë më 13 July 2012. 
  130. ^ "Curtain comes down on 123rd IOC Session". IOC. Marrë më 11 July 2011. 
  131. ^ "Afghanistan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  132. ^ "BBC Sport – London 2012 – Athletes". BBC. Marrë më 28 July 2012. 
  133. ^ "BBC Sport – London 2012 – Athletes". BBC. Marrë më 28 July 2012. 
  134. ^ "American Samoa – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  135. ^ "Andorra – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  136. ^ "Angola – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  137. ^ "Antigua and Barbuda – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  138. ^ "Argentina – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  139. ^ "Armenia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  140. ^ "Aruba – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  141. ^ "Australia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  142. ^ "Austria – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  143. ^ "Azerbaijan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  144. ^ "Bahamas – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  145. ^ "Bahrain – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  146. ^ "Bangladesh – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  147. ^ "Barbados – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  148. ^ "Belarus – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  149. ^ "Belgium – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  150. ^ "Belize – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  151. ^ "Benin – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  152. ^ "Bermuda – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  153. ^ "Buthan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  154. ^ "Bolivia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  155. ^ "Bosnia and Herzegovina – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  156. ^ "Botswana – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  157. ^ "Brazil – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  158. ^ "Virgin Islands, British – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  159. ^ "Brunei Darussalam – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  160. ^ "Bulgaria – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  161. ^ "Burkina Faso – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  162. ^ "Burundi – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  163. ^ "Cambodia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  164. ^ "Cameroon – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  165. ^ "Canada – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  166. ^ "Cape Verde – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  167. ^ "Cayman Islands – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  168. ^ "Central African Republic – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  169. ^ "Chad – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  170. ^ "Chile – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  171. ^ "People's Republic of China – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  172. ^ "Colombia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  173. ^ "Comoros – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  174. ^ "Congo – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  175. ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  176. ^ "Cook Islands – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  177. ^ "Costa Rica – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  178. ^ "Ivory Coast – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  179. ^ "Croatia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  180. ^ "Cuba – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  181. ^ "Cyprus – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  182. ^ "Czech Republic – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  183. ^ "Denmark – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  184. ^ "Djibouti – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  185. ^ "Dominica – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  186. ^ "Dominican Republic – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  187. ^ "Ecuador – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  188. ^ "Egypt – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  189. ^ "El Salvador – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  190. ^ "Equatorial Guinea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  191. ^ "Eritrea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  192. ^ "Estonia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  193. ^ "Ethiopia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  194. ^ "Fiji – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  195. ^ "Finland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  196. ^ "France – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  197. ^ "Gabon – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  198. ^ "Gambia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  199. ^ "Georgia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  200. ^ "Germany – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  201. ^ "Ghana – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  202. ^ "Great Britain – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  203. ^ "Greece – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  204. ^ "Grenada – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  205. ^ "Guam – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  206. ^ "Guatemala – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  207. ^ "Guinea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  208. ^ "Guinea-Bissau – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  209. ^ "Guyana – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  210. ^ "Haiti – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  211. ^ "Honduras – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  212. ^ "Hong Kong, China – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  213. ^ "Hungary – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  214. ^ "Iceland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  215. ^ "Independent Olympic Athletes – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  216. ^ "IOC Executive Board meets ahead of London Games". Olympic.org. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  217. ^ "India – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  218. ^ "Indonesia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  219. ^ "Islamic Republic of Iran – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  220. ^ "Iraq – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  221. ^ "Ireland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  222. ^ "Israel – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  223. ^ Originally Israel had 38 participating athletes but it reduced after swimmer Jonatan Kopelev which qualified for the Olympics had to cancel his participation after removal of his appendix two weeks before the Olympics.
  224. ^ "Italy – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  225. ^ "Jamaica – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  226. ^ "Japan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  227. ^ "Jordan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  228. ^ "Kazakhstan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  229. ^ "Kenya – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  230. ^ "Kiribati – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  231. ^ "Democratic People's Republic of Korea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  232. ^ "Republic of Korea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  233. ^ "IOC: Kuwait to compete under own flag at Olympics". 15 July 2012.  Një parametër i panjohur |access date= është injoruar (|access-date= suggested) (ndihmë)
  234. ^ "Kyrgyzstan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  235. ^ "Lao People's Democratic Republic – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  236. ^ "Latvia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  237. ^ "Lebanon – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  238. ^ "Lesotho – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  239. ^ "Liberia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  240. ^ "Libya – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  241. ^ "Liechtenstein – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  242. ^ "Lithuania – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  243. ^ "Luxembourg – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  244. ^ "Former Rep. of Macedonia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  245. ^ "Madagascar – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  246. ^ "Malawi – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  247. ^ "Malaysia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  248. ^ "Maldives – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  249. ^ "Mali – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  250. ^ "Malta – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  251. ^ "Marshall Islands – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  252. ^ "Mauritania – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  253. ^ "Mauritius – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  254. ^ "Mexico – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  255. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  256. ^ "Republic of Moldova – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  257. ^ "Monaco – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  258. ^ "Mongolia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  259. ^ "Montenegro – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  260. ^ "Morocco – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  261. ^ "Mozambique – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  262. ^ "Myanmar – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  263. ^ "Namibia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  264. ^ "Nauru – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  265. ^ "Nepal – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  266. ^ "Netherlands – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  267. ^ "New Zealand – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  268. ^ "Nicaragua – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  269. ^ "Niger – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  270. ^ "Nigeria – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  271. ^ "Norway – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  272. ^ "Oman – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  273. ^ "Pakistan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  274. ^ "Palau – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  275. ^ "Palestine – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  276. ^ "Panama – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  277. ^ "Papua New Guinea – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  278. ^ "Paraguay – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  279. ^ "Peru – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  280. ^ "Philippines – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  281. ^ "Poland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  282. ^ "Portugal – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  283. ^ "Puerto Rico – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  284. ^ "Qatar – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  285. ^ "Romania – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  286. ^ "Russian Federation – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  287. ^ "Rwanda – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  288. ^ "Saint Kitts and Nevis – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  289. ^ "Saint Lucia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  290. ^ "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  291. ^ "Samoa – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  292. ^ "San Marino – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  293. ^ "Sao Tome and Principe – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  294. ^ "Saudi Arabia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  295. ^ "Senegal – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  296. ^ "Serbia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  297. ^ "Seychelles – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  298. ^ "Sierra Leone – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  299. ^ "Singapore – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  300. ^ "Slovakia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  301. ^ "Slovenia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  302. ^ "Solomon Islands – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  303. ^ "Somalia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  304. ^ "South Africa – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  305. ^ "Spain – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  306. ^ "Sri Lanka – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  307. ^ "Sudan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  308. ^ "Suriname – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  309. ^ "Swaziland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  310. ^ "Sweden – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  311. ^ "Switzerland – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  312. ^ "Syrian Arab Republic – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  313. ^ "Chinese Taipei – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  314. ^ "Tajikistan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  315. ^ "United Republic of Tanzania – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  316. ^ "Thailand – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  317. ^ "Democratic Republic of Timor Leste – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  318. ^ "Togo – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  319. ^ "Tonga – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  320. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  321. ^ "Tunisia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  322. ^ "Turkey – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  323. ^ "Turkmenistan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  324. ^ "Tuvalu – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  325. ^ "Uganda – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  326. ^ "Ukraine – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  327. ^ "United Arab Emirates – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  328. ^ "United States of America – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  329. ^ "Uruguay – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  330. ^ "Uzbekistan – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  331. ^ "Vanuatu – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  332. ^ "Venezuela – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  333. ^ "Vietnam – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  334. ^ "Virgin Islands, US – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  335. ^ "Yemen – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  336. ^ "Zambia – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  337. ^ "Zimbabwe – 2012 Olympic Athletes". London 2012. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  338. ^ Fraser, Andrew (19 August 2005). "Shooters seek handgun law change". BBC News. Marrë më 30 July 2012. 
  339. ^ Associated Press (8 July 2008). "British government relaxes gun laws on sport ahead of 2012 Olympics". ESPN. Marrë më 30 July 2012. 
  340. ^ Tennis: Mixed Doubles Preview NBCOlympics
  341. ^ a b Michaelis, Vicki (8 July 2005). "Baseball, softball bumped from Olympics". USA Today. Marrë më 17 August 2008. 
  342. ^ "International Olympic Committee – Olympic Games". Olympic.org. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 12 September 2008. Marrë më 12 October 2008. 
  343. ^ a b Dipankar De Sarkar (6 August 2008). "London legislator heads for Beijing, wants cricket in 2012 Olympics". Thaindian News. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 15 August 2008. Marrë më 20 August 2008. 
  344. ^ "Gordon Brown backs Olympic netball". Daily Express. UK. 20 February 2008. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 28 September 2008. Marrë më 10 September 2008. 
  345. ^ "London 2012 Olympic Games schedule released". BBC News. 15 February 2011. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 27 May 2011. Marrë më 25 May 2011. 
  346. ^ a b "Im Dong Hyun posts first world record of London 2012 Olympics". Olympics Metal Tally. 27 July 2012. Marrë më 27 July 2012. 
  347. ^ "New Zealand pair Hamish Bond, Eric Murray set world best time at Olympic rowing regatta". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 28 July 2012. Marrë më 28 July 2012. 
  348. ^ "Ye Shiwen of China sets world record to win Olympic gold in women's 400 IM". Newsday. New York. 28 July 2012. Marrë më 28 July 2012. 
  349. ^ "Women's 53kg Results". London 2012. 29 July 2012. Marrë më 29 July 2012. 
  350. ^ "Dana Vollmer sets world record in 100 fly". Newsday. New York. 29 July 2012. Marrë më 29 July 2012. 
  351. ^ "Sascoc hails van der Burgh on Olympic win". SABC. Johannesburg. 30 July 2012. Marrë më 30 July 2012. 
  352. ^ "Records tumble as Kim takes gold". London 2012. 30 July 2012. Marrë më 30 July 2012. 
  353. ^ a b "Day 5 Review: Adrian, Gyurta celebrate gold success". London 2012. 1 August 2012. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  354. ^ "Lu lifts into record books". London 2012. 1 August 2012. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  355. ^ Pretot, Julien (2 August 2012). "Olympics-Cycling-China set world record, Britain out". Reuters. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  356. ^ "Coach backs GB quartet to go faster". Yahoo! Eurosport. 2 August 2012. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  357. ^ "Hoy claims fifth gold". London 2012. 2 August 2012. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  358. ^ "Soni smashes world record to claim gold". London 2012. 2 August 2012. Marrë më 2 August 2012. 
  359. ^ "Sun shatters 1500m WR at Olympics, Fogg eighth". Yahoo! Eurosport. 4 August 2012. Marrë më 4 August 2012. 
  360. ^ "Men's 94kg". London 2012. 4 August 2012. Marrë më 12 August 2012. 
  361. ^ Panasonic (10 April 2011), http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110410005065/en/Panasonic-Announces-3D-P2-HD-Shoulder-Mount-Camcorder, <http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20110410005065/en/Panasonic-Announces-3D-P2-HD-Shoulder-Mount-Camcorder>. Retrieved on 25 maj 2011 
  362. ^ "Roger Mosey". BBC. 29 September 2010. Marrë më 29 September 2010. 
  363. ^ US Sports Fans Using Proxy Servers to Watch Olympics on BBC – International Business Times UK
  364. ^ 2012 Olympics on YouTube – YouTube Help
  365. ^ Lawler, Richard (6 June 2012). "YouTube will live stream HD Olympics coverage to 64 territories in Asia, Africa". Engadget. AOL. Marrë më 8 June 2012. 
  366. ^ "Muse unveil official Olympic song". BBC. 28 June 2012. Marrë më 28 June 2012. 
  367. ^ "Welcome to Royal Mail Group". .royalmailgroup.com. 24 August 2009. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  368. ^ "Year-to-go Olympic stamps unveiled by Royal Mail". BBC News. 22 July 2011. 
  369. ^ "London 2012 £5 coin design success for Midlands pair". BBC News. BBC. 14 November 2011. Marrë më 31 May 2012. 
  370. ^ Kennedy, Maev (23 November 2011). "Olympic one kilo coins to mark London 2012 Games unveiled". The Guardian. Marrë më 21 July 2012. 
  371. ^ "The new London 2012 brand". London 2012. 4 June 2007. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 6 June 2007. Marrë më 4 June 2007. 
  372. ^ "BBC poll measuring public reaction to the new London Olympics logo". BBC Sport. 
  373. ^ a b Cowell, Alan (6 June 2007). "British turn up their noses at London Olympics logo". The New York Times. 
  374. ^ Stocks, Claire (5 June 2007). "Why we should give London 2012 logo a chance". BBC Sport Editors' blog. Marrë më 20 May 2010. 
  375. ^ "Epilepsy fears over 2012 footage". BBC News. 5 June 2007. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 28 June 2007. Marrë më 5 June 2007. 
  376. ^ "London Olympics: Iran to compete despite logo complaint". BBC News. 12 March 2011. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  377. ^ "The 8 Worst Fonts In The World". Co.Design. 2010. Marrë më 6 August 2012. 
  378. ^ a b c Farquhar, Gordon (19 May 2010). "London 2012 unveils Games mascots Wenlock & Mandeville". BBC News. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 22 May 2010. Marrë më 19 May 2010. 
  379. ^ "The London 2012 mascots". London 2012. 19 May 2010. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 21 May 2010. Marrë më 20 May 2010. 
  380. ^ "Home – London 2012 Mascots". Mylondon2012.com. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  381. ^ "Wenlock & Mandeville: London's Olympic mascots". Creative Review. Marrë më 2012-05-16. 
  382. ^ "Behold the One-Eyed Compromise Monster", Globe and Mail, 21 May 2010
  383. ^ Rhone, Nedra (2010-05-21). "Atlanta's Olympic mascot meets its ugly match". ajc.com. Marrë më 2012-05-16. 
  384. ^ Alpert, Emily (26 July 2012). "London Olympics: Making sport of mascots Wenlock, Mandeville". Los Angeles Times. 
  385. ^ "Interview: London 2012 Olympic mascots' creator discusses their design - News - Digital Arts". Digitalartsonline.co.uk. Marrë më 2012-05-16. 
  386. ^ "London Fireworks 2012 – New Year Live – BBC One". Youtube.com. 1 January 2012. Marrë më 23 June 2012. 
  387. ^ "Chariots of Fire Returns to UK Cinemas Ahead of the Olympics". British Film Institute. 23 March 2012.
  388. ^ Ng, David. "Chariots of Fire is West End-bound, Coinciding with Olympics". Los Angeles Times. 18 April 2012.
  389. ^ "Mr. Bean's 'Chariots Of Fire' Skit At 2012 London Olympics Opening Ceremony". International Business Times. Marrë më 29 July 2012. 
  390. ^ "Olympic Song – Chariots of Fire by Vangelis"
  391. ^ a b "Olympic Games partners | The people delivering the Games". London 2012. Marrë më 15 October 2011. 
  392. ^ Rogers, Simon (19 July 2012). "London 2012 Olympic sponsors list: who are they and what have they paid?". The Guardian. Marrë më 24 July 2012. 
  393. ^ "Greek Olympian Papachristou expelled for 'racist tweet'". BBC News. BBC. 25 July 2012. Marrë më 26 July 2012. 
  394. ^ a b "London 2012: All medallists to be drugs tested at Olympics". BBC News Online. 2012-07-15. Marrë më 2012-07-28. 
  395. ^ "Olympic drugs test: Albanian weightlifter Hysen Pulaku banned". BBC News Online. 2012-07-28. Marrë më 2012-07-28. 
  396. ^ "Olympics 2012 drugs: Artistic gymnast fails doping test". BBC News Online. 2012-07-29. Marrë më 2012-07-29. 
  397. ^ Cherry, Gene (July 29, 2012). "Olympics-St Kitts sprinter out for using banned drug". Reuters. Marrë më July 29, 2012. 

Book references[redakto | përpunoni burim]

  1. ^ Rosner, Scott; Shropshire, Kenneth L. (2010). The Business of Sports. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett. f. 453.  9780763780784. 

External links[redakto | përpunoni burim]

Stampa:Wikinewspar2

Official
News media