Përdoruesi:Punetor i Rregullt5/livadhi/Jaguari kundër leopardit

Nga Wikipedia, enciklopedia e lirë
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ky nuk është një artikull në Wikipedia: Është një punë individuale e një përdoruesi. Për më shumë informacion, shiko Wikipedia:Livadhi
Kjo hapësirë u editua për herë të fundit: 08-04-2019

Mbarove?     Miratoje hapësirën duke klikuar!

Jaguari kundër leopardit

Një jaguar i Amerikës Jugore (Panthera onca) afër Rio Negro
Një leopard Aziatik (Panthera pardus (ssp. fusca)) në Parkun Kombëtar të Saptunës, Indi

Jaguari (Panthera onca) dhe leopardi (Panthera pardus), janë dy mace të mëdha me fizik të ngjashëm të gjinisë Panthera,[1][2] midis së cilëve janë bërë krahasime.[3][4][5][6]

Krahasimi fizik[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Gëzofi[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Një mashkull Persian kaptiv me një gëzof jo të zakonshëm në Uilhema, Gjermani. Vështro që pullat e tij me njolla brenda janë të ngjashme me ato te jaguarit.

Gëzofi i jaguarit[7] është ndryshe nga ai i leopardit,[4][8] me pulla më të mëdha dhe më të errëta, dhe leopardi me pulla më të vogla dhe më të shumta në numër.[9][10][4]

Pullat në gëzofin e jaguarit janë më të mëdha,[5] më të pakta në numër,[8] zakonisht të zeza, dhe kanë viza më të trasha, me njolla të vogla brenda tyre.[4][11]

Ngjyra e gëzofit të leopardit ndryshon në varësi të klimës dhe habitatit, me një ngjyrë të verdhë të zbehtë, deri në një ngjyrë kafe të zbehtë ose të artë. Leopardët që jetojnë në pyje janë më të errët se leopardët në habitatet e thata.[4][9] Njollat zbehet teksa afrohen në pjesën e bardhë të barkut dhe drejt pjesëve të bardha te këmbët. Pullat janë më të dukshme në anën e pasme dhe te krahët.[10] Modeli i pullave është unik në secilin individ.[9][8] Pullat janë rrethore te gëzofi i leopardit në Afrikën Lindore dhe janë të çrregullta te popullatat e Afrikës Jugore dhe më të mëdha te popullatat e leopardëve Aziatikë.[12]

Përmasa[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Jaguars are generally bigger in size compare to leopards,[4] with males, weighing more than 212 pound (96 kg).[3][7] and larger males in South America have been recorded to weigh as much as 348 pound (158 kg). The smallest South American females weigh about 79 pound (36 kg).[4][7][8] North American jaguars are rather small, with those in the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve on the Mexican Pacific coast weighing just about 50 kilogram (110 lb).[13] The leopard's weight average is between 82 to 198 pound (37 to 90 kg), with large males weighing up to at least 96 kg (212 lb).[14][3]

Jaguars Leopards
Weight avarage 123–212 pound (56–96 kg)[15][7][8] up to 340 pound (150 kg)[3][4][7][8] 73–198 pound (33–90 kg)[3][14] with a maximum weight of 215 pound (98 kg).[8]
Height at shoulder 25–30 inches (64–76 cm)[15][7][8] Avarage for males is 24–28 inches (61–71 cm), while females are 22–25 inches (56–64 cm).
Head to tail length 3.7 to 6.1 feet (1.1 to 1.9 m).[4][7][8] 35 to 75 inches (89 to 191 cm).[4][5][9]
Tail Jaguar has the shortest tail of any big cat, at 18 to 30 inches (46 to 76 cm) length.[7][8] Tail is 24–39 inches (61–99 cm) long.[4][5][3]

Bite force[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite[16] that allows it to pierce the shells of armored prey.[4][15]

The jaguar is known for its bite strength,[16][5] while the leopard has a smaller skull than jaguar,[a] its bite strength is 'not compared' to that of the jaguar.[4][15] A jaguar bite can break the turtle's shell with a bite, it has the biggest bite strength among the big cats and it compares with the tiger as the cats with the srongest bite force.[16] The leopard bite strength can be deadly for the animals he hunts, but not as big as the jaguar.[8] Also, when the jaguar fought with the leopard,[3][5] he broke the leopard forhead skull with his bite.[4][17][16]

Gjenetika[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The cladogram showing the jaguar to be more closely related to the lion is based on studies done in 2006[18] and 2009,[19] while the one showing the leopard to be closer to the lion is based on studies done in 2010[20] and 2011.[21]

Together, the jaguar and leopard appear to be the closest living relatives of the lion (Panthera leo). Though the leopard is sympatric with the lion, in both Africa and Asia, it is not clear whether this[20][21] or the jaguar[18][19] is closer to the lion, with different analyses giving different results. In addition, as of 2017, whereas the jaguar is regarded as a monotypic species, the leopard is recognised as being divided into different subspecies.[1]

Shpërndarja[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

The leopard inhabits European Russia,[22] Asia and Africa.[23] The jaguar inhabits North and South America.[24]

At present, the jaguar's range extends from southwestern United States and Mexico through Central America to South America, including much of Amazonian Brazil.[4][24] The countries included in this range are Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica (particularly on the Osa Peninsula), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. It is now locally extinct in El Salvador and Uruguay.[24]

The leopard has the largest distribution of all wild cats, occurring widely in Africa as well as eastern and southern Asia, although populations have shown a declining trend, and are fragmented outside of sub-Saharan Africa.[25] Within sub-Saharan Africa, the species is still numerous and even thriving in marginal habitats where other large cats have disappeared, although there is considerable potential for human-leopard conflict due to leopards preying on livestock.[3] Populations in North Africa may be extinct.[4][5] Data on their distribution in Asia are not consistent.[15]

Temperamentet[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Both cats have fearsome reputations in their areas.[5] Leopard has more predators compare to jaguar,[9] and this might be one reason why leopard is small.[5][4][3]

  • Like many cats, jaguars and leopards are solitary.[4] Both can create coalitions or pairs during mating seasons.[15][10]
  • As smaller, it is agreed that the leopard is faster than the jaguar.[5][8]
  • Both jaguar and leopard tend to prey on humans.[26][27]

Man-eating[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: Man-eating.
The Panar Leopard, shot by Jim Corbett in 1910 after allegedly killing 400 people[27]

Jaguar and leopards might prey on humans[15] espacially when their prey is rare or their are old.[8] Jaguar rarely[5] or do not prey on humans.[28][29] Leopard however attack humans[27] especially in the India subcontinent and Africa where their favorite prey is selected by predators like tigers and lions.[30] The leopard may be much smaller for humans, but much more dangerous compared to other big cats and it can be compared to the tiger with higher tend to prey on humans.[4][10]

Unlike leopards, jaguars very rarely attack humans.[8] However, jaguar attacks appear to be on the rise with increased human encroachment on their habitat and a decrease in prey populations.[29][31] Sometimes jaguars in captivity attack zookeepers.[28] In addition, it appears that attacks on humans had been more common in the past, at least after conquistadors arrived in the Americas, to the extent that the jaguar had a fearsome reputation in the Americas, akin to the lion and tiger in the Old World.[4][15] Nevertheless, even in those times, the jaguar's chief prey was the capybara, not the human, and Charles Darwin reported a saying of Native Americans that people would not have to fear the jaguar much, as long as capybaras were abundant.[6]

Dyluftimet[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Meqë ata gjenden në kontinente të ndryshme, jaguari dhe leopardi kurrë nuk kanë bashkëjetuar ose dyluftuar në natyrë të egër.[4] The only fight between them was made in 20 century (1922) in captivity where jaguar break the forhead skull of leopard. After 10 minutes leopard die.[17] Though in the captivity fights are filmed, there is not enough evidence to see which of them could have won a fight.[5]

Shiko gjithashtu[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Notes[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  1. ^ For more details, see Jaguar and leopard skull

References[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  1. ^ a b Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11).  1027-2992.
  2. ^ Nowell, Kristin; Jackson, Peter (1996). Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan (PDF). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. ff. 17–149.  2-8317-0045-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Burnie, D.; Wilson, D. E., red. (2001). Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult, Dorling Kindersley.  978-0-7894-7764-4.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u D. Robert; A. Nicole. "Difference between jaguars and leopards". The Wildcat Sanctuary. Nuk lejohet formatim teksti në: |publisher= (Ndihmë!)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l S. Smith; A. Smith; C. P. Anglee. "Can you spot the "difference" between them?". National Geographic. Nuk lejohet formatim teksti në: |publisher= (Ndihmë!)
  6. ^ a b John Hampden Porter (1894). Wild beasts; a study of the characters and habits of the elephant, lion, leopard, panther, jaguar, tiger, puma, wolf, and grizzly bear. ff. 76–256. Marrë më 2014-01-19.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Boitani, Luigi (1984). Simon and Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster.  0-671-43727-5.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nowak, R. M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World (bot. 6th)). Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press. ff. 828–831.  978-0-8018-5789-8.
  9. ^ a b c d e Schütze, H. (2002). Field Guide to the Mammals of the Kruger National Park. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. ff. 92–3.  978-1-86872-594-6.
  10. ^ a b c d Menon, V. (2014). Indian Mammals: A Field Guide. Gurgaon, India: Hachette India.  978-93-5009-761-8.
  11. ^ "Jaguar (Panthera onca)". Our animals. Akron Zoo. Arkivuar nga origjinali origjinali më 2011-07-24. Marrë më 2006-08-11.
  12. ^ Satunin, K. A. (1914), "Leopardus pardus ciscaucasicus", Conspectus Mammalium Imperii Rossici I. Tiflis, ff. 159–160
  13. ^ Nuanaez, R.; Miller, B.; Lindzey, F. (2000). "Food habits of jaguars and pumas in Jalisco, Mexico". Journal of Zoology. 252 (3): 373–379. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00632.x. Marrë më 2006-08-08.
  14. ^ a b Brain, C.K. (1983). The Hunter or the Hunted: An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press.  978-0-226-07090-2.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h "All about Jaguars: Ecology". Wildlife Conservation Society. Arkivuar nga origjinali origjinali më 2009-05-29. Marrë më 2006-08-11.
  16. ^ a b c d S. Smith; Jaguar's 'bite force'. 2018-08-29
  17. ^ a b S. Smith. A fight (1922) between jaguar and leopard. Leopard dies after the match. 2018-08-29
  18. ^ a b Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. C.; O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. :2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277.  16400146.
  19. ^ a b Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.
  20. ^ a b Davis, B. W.; Li, G.; Murphy, W. J. (2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036.  20138224. Arkivuar nga origjinali origjinali (PDF) më 5 mars 2016. Parametri i panjohur |deadurl= është injoruar (sugjerohet |url-status=) (Ndihmë!)
  21. ^ a b Mazák, J. H.; Christiansen, P.; Kitchener, A. C.; Goswami, A. (2011). "Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger". PLOS One. 6 (10): e25483. :2011PLoSO...625483M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025483.  3189913.  22016768.
  22. ^ Lukarevsky, V.; Akkiev, M.; Askerov, E.; Agili, A.; Can, E.; Gurielidze, Z.; Kudaktin, A.; Malkhasyan, A.; Yarovenko, Y. (2007). "Status of the Leopard in the Caucasus" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 2): 15–21.
  23. ^ Pirie, Tara J.; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Fellowes, Mark D.E. (30 maj 2017). "Increasing game prices may alter farmers' behaviours towards leopards (Panthera pardus) and other carnivores in South Africa". PeerJ (në anglisht). 5: e3369. doi:10.7717/peerj.3369.  2167-8359.
  24. ^ a b c Quigley, H.; Foster, R.; Petracca, L.; Payan, E.; Salom, R.; Harmsen, B. (2017). "Panthera onca". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The IUCN. 2017: e.T15953A50658693. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T15953A50658693.en. Marrë më 2 qershor 2018.
  25. ^ Pirie, Tara J.; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Fellowes, Mark D.E. (30 maj 2017). "Increasing game prices may alter farmers' behaviours towards leopards (Panthera pardus) and other carnivores in South Africa". PeerJ (në anglisht). 5: e3369. doi:10.7717/peerj.3369.  2167-8359.
  26. ^ Th. Roseevelt. "Jaguar hunt by Th. Roseevelt". Bartleby. Nuk lejohet formatim teksti në: |publisher= (Ndihmë!)
  27. ^ a b c J. Corbett. "Man-eater of Panar". DinoAnimals. Nuk lejohet formatim teksti në: |publisher= (Ndihmë!)
  28. ^ a b "Jaguar: The Western Hemisphere's Top Cat". Planeta. shkurt 2008. Arkivuar nga origjinali origjinali më 21 gusht 2008. Marrë më 8 mars 2009. Parametri i panjohur |deadurl= është injoruar (sugjerohet |url-status=) (Ndihmë!)
  29. ^ a b V. Iserson, K.; Francis, Adama M. (2015). "Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review". Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 16 (2): 303–309. doi:10.5811/westjem.2015.1.24043.  4380383.  25834674.
  30. ^ Skinner, J. D.; Chimimba, C. T. (2005). The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion (bot. 3rd)). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ff. 397–401.  978-0-521-84418-5.
  31. ^ Dickerson, M. C. (1915). The American Museum Journal. f. 46.