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[[ImageSkeda:BolexH16.jpg|right|thumb|This [[16 mm film|16 mm]] spring-wound [[Bolex]] "H16" Reflex përbëjnë një kategori të gjerë të[[film school]]s.]]
'''Filmi dokumentar''' përbëjnë një kategori të gjerë të [[motion picture]]s [[jofikcion]]al për qëllim të [[Wikt:document#Verb|dokumentoje]] disa aspekte te realitetit, primarily for the purposes of instruction or maintaining a historical record.<ref>[http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/56332 oed.com]</ref> A 'documentary film' was originally shot on [[film stock]] — the only medium available — but now includes [[video]] and [[new media|digital]] productions that can be either [[direct-to-video]], made as a [[television program]] or released for screening in cinemas. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, and mode of audience reception" that is continually evolving and is without clear boundaries.<ref>Nichols, Bill. 'Foreword', in Barry Keith Grant and Jeannette Sloniowski (eds.) ''Documenting The Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video''. Detroit: [[Wayne State University Press]], 1997</ref>
 
In his essays, Soviet film-maker [[Dziga Vertov]] argued for presenting "life as it is" (that is, life filmed surreptitiously) and "life caught unawares" (life provoked or surprised by the camera).
 
The American film critic [[Pare Lorentz]] defines a documentary film as "a [[fact|factual]]ual [[film]] which is dramatic."<ref>[http://parelorentzcenter.net/fdr_film.php Pare Lorentz Film Library – FDR and Film]</ref> Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, and a specific message, along with the facts it presents.<ref>{{Cite document
| author = [[Larry Ward]]
| date = Fall 2008
There are clear connections in terms of practice with magazine and newspaper feature-writing and indeed to non-fiction literature. Many of the generic forms of documentary, for example the biopic or profile; or the observational piece. These generic forms are explored on the University of Winchester Journalism Department 'features web' where 'long form journalism' is classified by genre or content, rather than in terms of production as film, radio or 'print'.<ref>[http://journalism.winchester.ac.uk/?page=299 University of Winchester Journalism Department – Feature Writing and Documentary Making]</ref>
 
== Histori ==
=== Para-1900 ===
 
Early film (pre-1900) was dominated by the novelty of showing an event. They were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films; the term "documentary" was not coined until 1926. Many of the first films, such as those made by [[Auguste and Louis Lumière]], were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations.
The French surgeon [[Eugène-Louis Doyen]] started a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. As Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906 Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series ''Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées'' (1906), and the four-film ''Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne'' (1911). These and five other of Doyen's films survive.<ref>''Journal of Film Preservation'', nr. 70, november 2005.</ref>
 
[[FileSkeda:Gheorghe Marinescu - Science films.jpg|thumb|right|Frame from one of [[Gheorghe Marinescu|Marinescu's]] science films (1899).]]
Between July 1898 and 1901 the [[Romania]]n professor [[Gheorghe Marinescu]] made several science films in his [[neurology]] clinic in [[Bucharest]]:<ref name="marin1">Dumitrescu, Mircea, ''O privire critică asupra filmului românesc'', Bucharest, 2005, ISBN 978-973-9153-93-5</ref> ''The walking troubles of organic hemiplegy'' (1898), ''The walking troubles of organic paraplegies'' (1899), ''A case of hysteric hemiplegy healed through hypnosis'' (1899), ''The walking troubles of progressive locomotion ataxy'' (1900) and ''Illnesses of the muscles'' (1901). All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph", and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from [[Paris]], between 1899 and 1902.<ref name="marin2">Rîpeanu, Bujor T. ''Filmul documentar 1897–1948'', Bucharest, 2008, ISBN 978-973-7839-40-4</ref> In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale", but back then I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I forgot those works and I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Unfortunately, not many scientists have followed your way."<ref name="marin3">Ţuţui, Marian, ''[http://www.cncinema.abt.ro/Files/Documents/fls-258.doc A short history of the Romanian films]'' at the Romanian National Cinematographic Center. {{Wayback|url=http://www.cncinema.abt.ro/Files/Documents/fls-258.doc|date =20080411014620}}</ref><ref name="marinescupathe">[http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=71342 The Works of Gheorghe Marinescu], 1967 report.</ref><ref name="marinescuanf">[http://www.cncinema.abt.ro/Files/Movies/fls-271.avi Excerpts of prof. dr. Marinescu's science films].{{dead link|date=June 2010}}</ref>
 
=== 1900–1920 ===
[[Travelogue (films)|Travelogue films]] were very popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were often referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popular sort of films at the time.<ref>[[Miriam Hansen]], ''Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film'', 2005.</ref> An important early film to move beyond the concept of the scenic was ''[[In the Land of the Head Hunters]]'' (1914), which embraced [[primitivism]] and [[exoticism]] in a staged story presented as truthful re-enactments of the life of [[First Nations|Native Americans]].
 
Also during this period [[Frank Hurley]]'s documentary film, ''South'' (1919), about the [[Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition]] was released. It documented the failed Antarctic expedition led by [[Ernest Shackleton]] in 1914.
 
=== 1920s ===
==== Romanticism ====
[[FileSkeda:Nanook of the north.jpg|thumb|[[Nanook of the North]] poster.]]
With [[Robert J. Flaherty]]'s ''[[Nanook of the North]]'' in 1922, documentary film embraced [[romanticism]]; Flaherty filmed a number of heavily staged romantic films during this time period, often showing how his subjects would have lived 100 years earlier and not how they lived right then. For instance, in ''Nanook of the North'' Flaherty did not allow his subjects to shoot a walrus with a nearby shotgun, but had them use a harpoon instead. Some of Flaherty's staging, such as building a roofless [[igloo]] for interior shots, was done to accommodate the filming technology of the time.
 
[[Paramount Pictures]] tried to repeat the success of Flaherty's ''Nanook'' and ''Moana'' with two romanticized documentaries, ''[[Grass (1925 film)|Grass]]'' (1925) and ''[[Chang (film)|Chang]]'' (1927), both directed by [[Merian Cooper]] and [[Ernest Schoedsack]].
 
==== The city symphony ====
The continental, or realist, tradition focused on humans within human-made environments, and included the so-called "city symphony" films such as [[Walter Ruttmann]]'s ''[[Berlin, Symphony of a City]]'' (of which Grierson noted in an article<ref>Grierson, John. 'First Principles of Documentary', in Kevin Macdonald & Mark Cousins (eds.) Imagining Reality: The Faber Book of Documentary. London: Faber and Faber, 1996</ref> that ''Berlin'' represented what a documentary should '''not''' be), [[Alberto Cavalcanti]]'s ''[[Rien que les heures]]'', and [[Dziga Vertov]]'s ''[[Man with the Movie Camera]]''. These films tend to feature people as products of their environment, and lean towards the avant-garde.
 
==== Kino-Pravda ====
[[Dziga Vertov]] was central to the [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] [[Kino-Pravda]] (literally, "cinematic truth") newsreel series of the 1920s. Vertov believed the camera — with its varied lenses, shot-counter shot editing, time-lapse, ability to slow motion, stop motion and fast-motion — could render reality more accurately than the human eye, and made a film philosophy out of it.
 
==== Newsreel tradition ====
The [[newsreel]] tradition is important in documentary film; newsreels were also sometimes staged but were usually re-enactments of events that had already happened, not attempts to steer events as they were in the process of happening. For instance, much of the battle footage from the early 20th century was staged; the cameramen would usually arrive on site after a major battle and re-enact scenes to film them.
 
=== 1920s–1940s ===
The propagandist tradition consists of films made with the explicit purpose of persuading an audience of a point. One of the most notorious [[propaganda film]]s is [[Leni Riefenstahl]]'s film ''[[Triumph of the Will]]'' (1935), which chronicled the 1934 [[Nuremberg Rally|Nazi Party Congress]] and was commissioned by [[Adolf Hitler]]. Leftist filmmakers [[Joris Ivens]] and [[Henri Storck]] directed ''[[Borinage]]'' (1931) about the Belgian coal mining region. [[Luis Buñuel]] directed a "[[surrealism|surrealist]]" documentary ''[[Land Without Bread|Las Hurdes]]'' (1933).
 
In Britain, a number of different filmmakers came together under John Grierson. They became known as the [[Documentary Film Movement]]. Grierson, [[Alberto Cavalcanti]], [[Harry Watt (director)|Harry Watt]], [[Basil Wright]], and [[Humphrey Jennings]] amongst others succeeded in blending propaganda, information, and education with a more poetic aesthetic approach to documentary. Examples of their work include ''Drifters'' ([[John Grierson]]), ''[[Song of Ceylon]]'' ([[Basil Wright]]), ''[[Fires Were Started]]'' and ''[[A Diary for Timothy]]'' ([[Humphrey Jennings]]). Their work involved poets such as [[W. H. Auden]], composers such as [[Benjamin Britten]], and writers such as [[J. B. Priestley]]. Among the best known films of the movement are ''[[Night Mail]]'' and ''[[Coal Face]]''.
 
=== 1950s–1970s ===
==== Cinéma-vérité ====
[[Cinéma vérité]] (or the closely related [[Direct Cinema|direct cinema]]) was dependent on some technical advances in order to exist: light, quiet and reliable cameras, and portable sync sound.
 
Famous cinéma vérité/direct cinema films include ''[[Les Raquetteurs]]'',<ref>[http://www.nfb.ca/trouverunfilm/fichefilm.php?id=54008&v=h&lg=en Les raquetteurs – NFB – Collection]</ref> ''Showman'', ''[[Salesman (film)|Salesman]]'', ''Near Death'', ''The Children Were Watching'', and ''Grey Gardens''.
 
==== Political weapons ====
In the 1960s and 1970s, documentary film was often conceived as a political weapon against [[neocolonialism]] and [[capitalism]] in general, especially in [[Latin America]], but also in a changing [[Quebec]] society. ''La Hora de los hornos'' (''[[The Hour of the Furnaces]]'', from 1968), directed by [[Octavio Getino]] and [[Fernando E. Solanas]], influenced a whole generation of filmmakers. Among the many political documentaries produced in the early 1970s was "Chile: A Special Report," public television's first in-depth expository look of the September 1973 overthrow of the [[Salvador Allende]] government in [[Chile]] by military leaders under [[Augusto Pinochet]], produced by documentarians Ari Martinez and José Garcia.
 
=== Modern documentaries ===
 
[[FileSkeda:VoicesOfIraq.jpg|thumb|215px|One of 150 DV cameras used by Iraqis to film themselves and create the 2004 film ''[[Voices of Iraq]]''.]]
[[Box office]] analysts have noted that this film genre has become increasingly successful in theatrical release with films such as ''[[Fahrenheit 9/11]]'', ''[[Super Size Me]]'', ''[[Food, Inc.]]'', ''[[Earth (2009 film)|Earth]]'', ''[[March of the Penguins]]'', ''[[Religulous]]'', and ''[[An Inconvenient Truth]]'' among the most prominent examples. Compared to dramatic narrative films, documentaries typically have far lower budgets which makes them attractive to film companies because even a limited theatrical release can be highly profitable.
 
Modern lightweight digital video cameras and computer-based editing have greatly aided documentary makers, as has the dramatic drop in equipment prices. The first film to take full advantage of this change was [[Martin Kunert]] and [[Eric Manes]]' ''[[Voices of Iraq]]'', where 150 DV cameras were sent to Iraq during the war and passed out to Iraqis to record themselves.
 
==== Documentaries without words ====
Films in the documentary form without words have been made. From 1982, the [[Qatsi trilogy]] and the similar ''[[Baraka (film)|Baraka]]'' could be described as visual tone poems, with music related to the images, but no spoken content. ''[[Koyaanisqatsi]]'' (part of the Qatsi trilogy) consists primarily of [[slow motion]] and [[time-lapse]] photography of cities and many natural landscapes across the [[United States]]. ''Baraka'' tries to capture the great pulse of humanity as it flocks and swarms in daily activity and religious ceremonies.
 
The 2004 film ''[[Genesis (2004 film)|Genesis]]'' shows animal and plant life in states of expansion, decay, sex, and death, with some, but little, narration.
 
== Other documentary forms ==
=== Compilation films ===
Compilation films were pioneered in 1927 by [[Esfir Shub|Esfir Schub]] with ''The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty''. More recent examples include ''[[Point of Order (film)|Point of Order]]'' (1964), directed by [[Emile de Antonio]] about the McCarthy hearings and ''[[The Atomic Cafe]]'' which is made entirely out of found footage that various agencies of the U.S. government made about the safety of nuclear radiation (for example,, telling troops at one point that it's safe to be irradiated as long as they keep their eyes and mouths shut). Similarly, ''[[The Last Cigarette]]'' combines the testimony of various [[tobacco]] company executives before the [[U.S. Congress]] with archival propaganda extolling the virtues of smoking.
 
== See also ==
{{multicol|100%}}
* [[Animated documentary]]
{{col-end}}
 
=== Some documentary film awards ===
* [[Academy Award for Documentary Feature]]
* [[Joris Ivens Award]], [[International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam]] (IDFA), (named after [[Joris Ivens]])
* Grand Prize [[Visions du Réel]]
 
== Notes and references ==
{{Reflist|3}}
 
== Sources and bibliography ==
* Aitken, Ian (ed.). ''Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film''. New York: [[Routledge]], 2005. ISBN 978-1-57958-445-0.
* [[Erik Barnouw|Barnouw, Erik]]. ''Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film'', 2nd rev. ed. New York: [[Oxford University Press]], 1993. ISBN 978-0-19-507898-5. Still a useful introduction.
* [http://wwwmcc.murdoch.edu.au/ReadingRoom/doco/biblio.htm Murdoch.edu], Documentary – reading list
 
=== Ethnographic film ===
* Emilie de Brigard, "The History of Ethnographic Film", in ''Principles of Visual Anthropology'', ed. Paul Hockings. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1995, pp.&nbsp;13–43.
* Leslie Devereaux, "Cultures, Disciplines, Cinemas", in ''Fields of Vision. Essays in Film Studies, Visual Anthropology and Photography'', ed. Leslie Devereaux & Roger Hillman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995, pp.&nbsp;329–339.
* Ismail Xavier, "Cinema: Revelação e Engano", in ''O Olhar'', ed. Adauto Novaes. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1993, pp.&nbsp;367–384.
 
== External links ==
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