Nikollë Dukagjini

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Nikollë Pal Dukagjini (anglisht: Nicholas Dukagjini) ka qene nje fisnik shqiptar nga familja Dukagjini ne shekullin e 15. Ai ishte i biri i Pal Dukagjini, nje nga anetaret themelues te Lidhjes se Lezhës.[1] Nikollë Dukagjini u arratis ne Itali mbas Siege of Shkodra ne 1479, por është i njohur edhe për kthimin në atdheun e tij dy vjet më vonë, se bashku me te birin e Skanderbeut Gjon Kastrioti dhe fisnikë të tjerë për të udhëhequr lëvizjen e armatosur kundër osmanëve.

Jeta[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Nikollë Dukagjini ka qene i biri i Pal Dukagjinit (1411–1458). He had three brothers: Lekë, Progon and Gjergj, of whom only Lekë was politically notable and is often mentioned besides his brother.[1][2] Nicholas Dukagjini married Chiranna Arianiti, daughter of Gjergj Arianiti, and had one child that survived, a son Progon.[3]

After the death of Skanderbeg in 1468, Nicholas Dukagjini and his brothers Lekë and Progon were allied to Venice.[4] In 1471, Nicholas’ brother Progon is mentioned dead.[1]

Following the Ottoman retreat after the first Siege of Shkodra in August 1474, the Turkish army destroyed and burned the inhabited surrounding region, including the castle of Dagnum, despite a strong resistance led by the brothers Nicholas and Lekë Dukagjini.[5] The Ottoman Empire captured Krujë in June 1478, and shortly afterwards, Drivast and Alessio (Lezhë).[6] Many local fighters were engaged in the defense of the town during the second Siege of Shkodra between 1478 and 1479, including several ex-warriors of Skanderbeg. Teodor and Budomir Dukagjini, two cousins of Nicholas, were among the fallen in this battle.[7]

On January 25, 1479, the Republic of Venice signed the Treaty of Constantinople with the Ottoman Empire, according to which, the city of Shkodra was ceded to the Ottomans, on condition that its citizens would be free to leave. Eventually, on April 25, 1479 the Ottoman forces entered Shkodra, which triggered massive emigrations of the local people, mostly towards Venice.[8] Several noblemen and notable political figures fled to Italy, including Nicholas Dukagjini and his brother Lekë Dukagjini.[8][9]

Return to Albania and early 1480s uprisings[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

With the death of sultan Mehmed II on 3 May 1481 and the following civil unrest that broke out in the Ottoman Empire,[10] hope rose to the leaders in exile for a successful return against the Ottomans in their countries and to restore their former principalities.[11] In early summer 1481, Nicholas Dukagjini and Lekë Dukagjini returned to Albania. The Rector of Ragusa wrote to the king Ferdinand I of Naples (Ferrante), informing him on June 2, 1481 that Prince Vlatko had returned to Bosnia, while Nicholas Dukagjini went to Albania to join the armed movements against the Ottomans.[12][13]

Gjon Kastrioti II, who had been fighting the Ottomans in Otranto, sailed to Albania in four Neapolitan ships (galera) with his cousin Konstandin Muzaka.[14] He disembarked south of Durrës, Konstandin sailed further south to Himara, while Nicholas and Lekë Dukagjini headed to Upper Albania, in the highlands of Lezhë (Lezhë) and Shkodra, where they led the uprising in the north. Nicholas and Lekë's forces attacked the town of Shkodra and forced Hadım Suleiman Pasha to send further military reinforcements in the region.[15] Konstandin carried military actions in the coastal region of Himarë, meanwhile an Albanian infantry of 7,000 was gathered around Gjon Kastrioti.[16] Gjon severely defeated an Ottoman army of 2,000[17] to 3,000,[18] captured Himara on August 31, 1481 and later Sopot (Borshi) Castle[19] and took captive Hadım Suleiman Pasha, who was sent to Naples as a trophy of the victory and eventually was set free under a ransom of 20,000 ducats.[20]

The military campaign led by Nicholas and Lekë Dukagjini in the northern highlands and by Kastrioti and Muzaka in central and south Albania, were conducted to impede new Ottoman troops to reach Italy[10] and their transient success had an external impact on the liberation of Otranto on September 10, 1481.[21]

Legacy[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Nicholas' son, Progon Dukagjini had returned to Albania from Italy, to lead an anti-Ottoman rebellion that broke out in North Albania in 1501.[22] Eventually he signed an agreement with the Ottomans and was given the title Pasha of Rumelia,[23] as well as the dominion over a part of the Dukagjini properties in the form of timar.[22][24]

References[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Citations[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ a b c Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 469Stampa:Quote
  2. ^ Elsie 2003, p. 54Stampa:Quote
  3. ^ Elsie 2003, p. 43Stampa:Quote
  4. ^ Schmitt 2001, p. 508Stampa:Quote
  5. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 469Stampa:Quote
  6. ^ Fine 1994, p. 600Stampa:Quote
  7. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 470Stampa:Quote
  8. ^ a b Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 471Stampa:Quote
  9. ^ Fine 1994, p. 600Stampa:Quote
  10. ^ a b Rosa 1982, p. 97Stampa:Quote
  11. ^ Muzafer Korkuti, Petrika Thëngjilli, Gazmend Shpuza, Fatmira Rama, Xhelal Gjeçovi, Dilaver Sadikaj, Ana Lalaj: Historia e Popullit Shqiptar 4, S. 346, Tirana, Albania: Shtëpia botuese e librit shkollor 2004, ISBN 99927-2-960-0 (Lexuar më May 12, 2012) Stampa:Quote
  12. ^ Treptow 1992, p. 36Stampa:Quote
  13. ^ Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë: Studia Albanica, Volume 27, Issue 1. Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë 1990 (Lexuar më April 28, 2012) Stampa:Quote
  14. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 473Stampa:Quote
  15. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 473Stampa:Quote
  16. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 474Stampa:Quote
  17. ^ Noli 1962, p. 120Stampa:Quote
  18. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 473
  19. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 474Stampa:Quote
  20. ^ Rosa 1982, p. 97
  21. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 474Stampa:Quote
  22. ^ a b Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë 2002, p. 310Stampa:Quote
  23. ^ Islamic Research Institute (Pakistan), Central Institute of Islamic Research (Pakistan): Islamic studies, Volume 36, Issues 1–4. Islamic Research Institute 1997 (Lexuar më April 30, 2012)
  24. ^ Brief Chronicle on the Descendants of our Musachi Dynasty by John Musachi (1515) [1] Stampa:Quote

Sources[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]