Beteja e Ohrit

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Beteja e Ohrit
Pjesë e Beteja osmane në Evropë
Data 14 ose 15 shtator 1464
Vendi Afër Ohrit
Rezultati Fitore shqiptaro-veneciane
Pjesëmarrsit në konflikt
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Lidhja e Lezhës
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Perandoria Osmane
Komandantët dhe udhëheqësit
Coa Kastrioti Family.svg Skënderbeu
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Cimarosto
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1517).svg Sheremet beu
Fuqia (kapaciteti)
12,000 shqiptarë

1.000 venedikas

14,000
Viktimat dhe humbjet
Pakë 10.000

Beteja e Ohrit u zhvillua në 14 ose 15 shtator 1464 midis forcave të Perandorisë Osmane dhe forcave të Skënderbeut. Një kryqëzatë kundër sulltan Mehmetit të II-të ishte planifikuar nga Papa Pius II me Skënderbeun si udhëheqësin kryesor. Beteja afër Ohrit ndodhi si rezultat i një kryengritje të shqiptarëve në territorin e pushtuar osman. Turqit e stacionuar ne këtë zone u sulmuan nga ushtarët e Skënderbeut dhe 1.000 ushtarë venecianë nën udhëheqjen e "Cimarosto". Turqit u përpoqën të dilin nga vendete te tyre të mbrojtura në Ohër dhe u zunë në pritë nga kalorësia shqiptare. Skënderbeu e fitoi betejën dhe njerëzit tij fituan 40.000 dukate pas kapjes së oficerëve osmanë. Pius vdiq përpara se te fillonte kryqëzate e planifikuar, megjithatë bëri atë që, e shtyu Skënderbeun për të luftuar betejat e tij pothuajse i vetëm.

Situata[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Kryqëzata e Papa Pius II kundër Perandorisë Osmane ishte shpallur në nëntor 1463. Skënderbeu, lideri i shqiptarëve, ishte një aleat jetik për këtë përpjekje dhe do të bëhet më vonë një nga udhëheqësit e tij kryesorë [1]. Venedikasit, të cilët ishin bashkuar në këtë kryqëzatë, nuk mund të bindnin Lekë Dukagjinin, nje aleat jo shumë i qëndrueshëm i Skënderbeut në veri të Shqipërisë që te bashkohej deri sa papa nderhyri.

Për më tepër, fuqite kryesore europiane nguronin te merrnin pjese ne nje kryqezate te papes. Ne mesin e atyre qe intersoheshin ishin qyteti i Firences, Francisco Sforza i Milanos, Louis XI i Frances, dhe Ferdinandi I i Napolit, all of whom declined for their own reasons.[2] Republika e Venecias, however, decided to aid Skanderbeg by sending 500 cavalry and 500 infantry under the condottiero Antonio da Cosenza, also known as Cimarosto.[3] Once the campaign season began, Mathias Corvinus i Hungarisë recaptured many of the Bosnian strongpoints, including Jajce, which had been taken from the Mbretëria e Bosnjës by the Ottomans. Mehmeti i II marshoi ne Bosnia, pillaging the countryside, hoping that his enemies would surrender. The Hungarian resistance, however, was stiff.[4] The Ottomans still managed to make headway against the Hungarians who had been trying to lift Ottoman the siege on Jajce with a ruse. The Sultan continued his siege while Mathias escaped from the fortress with a force of men, but the retreating army was harried with two-hundred soldiers being captured and sent to Constantinople for execution. Despite the setback, Jajce held out and Mehmed retreated from Bosnia.[5]

Fushata[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

After Skanderbeg's raid into Macedonia the year before, the Sultan decided to strengthen his fortresses in the area.[6] He then sent Şeremet bey to Ohrid, a city close to Skanderbeg's domains, with 14.000 cavalry to prevent another Albanian incursion. After learning of this, Skanderbeg prepared to march against Şeremet. The pasha's men, however, were stationed both inside and outside the city, making it difficult to defeat them.[7] Before marching, Skanderbeg received news that Pius had arrived in Ancona and died upon seeing the crusader fleet.[8] He left Cimarosto with an Italian force in Valikardhë near modern day Bulqizë në lindje te Shqiperise.[9] Skënderbeu then decided to march against Şeremet anyway and set off with 12,000 cavalry three hours after dusk.[7] After one day of marching, Skanderbeg reached Macedonia and began pillaging the land.[10]

Beteja[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Once he reached Ohrid, Skanderbeg gave a speech to his men, encouraging them for the coming battle.[11] He then assigned Pekë Emmanuali and Peter Engjëlli, Pal Engjëlli's brother, as commanders of a 500-man troop of cavalry where they were to approach the gates of Ohrid and provoke the Turks to attack.[12] They were to throw smoke and dust into the air to irritate the garrison.[13] Then they were to feign retreat where the pursuing Ottoman cavalry would be ambushed by the main Albanian force. On 14 or 15 September, everything went as planned and the trap was sprung. Skanderbeg's assault came out and killed 10,000 Turkish men and captured twelve Turkish forces, among them Şeremet's son.[12] The Turkish forces were pursued by the Venetian forces alongside the Albanians. The Albanian-Venetian losses were few.[10]

Më pas[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

An Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica).

Skanderbeg celebrated the event by dining off letnica (Ohrid trout), a fish found in Lake Ohrid that was sent to the Byzantine emperors every Friday for their supper meal.[5] The twelve captured officers were ransomed for 40,000 ducats. Skanderbeg distributed this amount through his force, with every man receiving his fair share.[12][13] He then besieged Ohrid for a short time before returning to Albania; the Venetian Senate (Signoria) hailed the campaign as a victory despite not being able to take Ohrid.[10] The crusade seemed to have gone well for the Christian side but, after Pius' death, the remaining cardinals lost their hope and handed the money raised for the crusade to the Venetians.[14] Mehmed saw Skanderbeg's vulnerability and sent Ballaban Badera, an Albanian janissary, to Albania where they met at Vaikal and he was defeated.[12] Ballaban had replaced Şeremet as the commander in Ohrid after the latter fell out of favor with the sultan.[9] Ballaban would meet Skanderbeg several more times in battle before being mortally wounded in action at the second siege of Krujë.[15] Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid and his clerks and boyars were expatriated to Istanbul in 1466 probably because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion.[16]

Shënime[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ Hodgkinson p. 190.
  2. ^ Hodgkinson p. 191.
  3. ^ Frashëri p. 417.
  4. ^ Hodgkinson p. 192.
  5. ^ a b Hodgkinson p. 193.
  6. ^ Franco p. 335.
  7. ^ a b Franco p. 336.
  8. ^ Francione p. 168.
  9. ^ a b Frashëri p. 418.
  10. ^ a b c Frashëri p. 419.
  11. ^ Franco p. 336-337.
  12. ^ a b c d Franco p. 337.
  13. ^ a b Francione p. 169.
  14. ^ Hodgkinson p. 194.
  15. ^ Frashëri p. 455.
  16. ^ Shukarova, Aneta (2008), Todor Chepreganov, ed., http://www.scribd.com/doc/66035878/History-of-The-Macedonian-People-ed-Todor-Chepreganov-Institute-of-National-History-Skopje-2008, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN 9989159246, OCLC 276645834, <http://www.scribd.com/doc/66035878/History-of-The-Macedonian-People-ed-Todor-Chepreganov-Institute-of-National-History-Skopje-2008>. Retrieved on 26 Dhjetor 2011, "deportation of the Archbishop of Ohrid, Dorotei, to Istanbul in 1466, to-gether with other clerks and bolyars who probably were expatriated be-cause of their anti Ottoman acts during the Skender-Bey’s rebellion." 

Referenca[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Stampa:Ottoman battles

Koordinatat:41°07′01″ Veri 20°48′06″ Lindje 41.116944° Veri 20.801667° Lindje