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Stampa:Language templates

The purpose of this template is to indicate that a span of text belongs to a particular language. It often makes no visible changes to the text but can prompt web browsers to use a more appropriate font or screen readers to use a particular kind of pronunciation and so on. See § Rationale for more information.

Syntax and usage[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Stampa:In5{{lang|language tag|text}}

The language tag should consist of an ISO-639 language code (click here for list of most codes). The template also supports properly formatted IETF language tags using subtags that identify the language's script, region, and/or variant. The ISO 639 language code is a two- or three-letter abbreviation, in lowercase, of the language's name. French, for example, has the code fr:

  • She said: "{{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}" → She said: "Je suis française."

Because all languages represented by two-letter codes in ISO 639-1 can also be represented by their three-letter equivalents in ISO 639-2 and above, it is recommended to use the shortest language tag possible that sufficiently describes the target language.[1] So while French could be represented by 639‑2's fra code, use the 639‑1 code fr instead. Likewise, script, region, and variant information should be included only when they provide a necessary distinction. For an up-to-date list of available language, script, region, and variant codes, please refer to the IANA's language subtag registry.

By default, this template will place articles into the relevant subcategory of Stampa:Category link. To suppress this – e.g. when using {{lang}} within a wikilink or the title parameter of a citation – add the parameter |nocat=true.

Formatting[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Automatic italics[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

{{lang}} automatically applies italic styling when the text in {{{2}}} is written entirely in the Latn script (the Latin alphabet and its extensions), either when that is the default encoding for the language or when it is triggered by a xx-Latn language codeStampa:Colon

  • {{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}Je suis française.
  • ''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.}}''Je suis française. – external markup is ignored
  • {{lang|he-Latn|la`az}} ({{lang|he|לעז}})la`az (לעז)
  • ''{{lang|he-Latn|la`az}}'' (Stampa:!mxt)la`az (Stampa:!mxt) – external markup is ignored around the he-Latn text, but will incorrectly italicize the Hebrew-character material.

When Latn script should not be italicized, there are multiple approachesStampa:Colon |italic=no – renders {{{2}}} in upright font; italic markup around the template is ignored; italic markup inside the template causes an error messageStampa:Colon

  • {{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=no}}Je suis française.
  • ''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=no}}''Je suis française.
  • ''{{lang|fr|Je suis ''française''.|italic=no}}''Je suis française. – italic markup in conflict with |italic=no

|italic=unset – disables template-provided styling; {{{2}}} is styled according to external or internal wiki markupStampa:Colon

  • {{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=unset}}Je suis française.
  • ''{{lang|fr|Je suis française.|italic=unset}}''Je suis française.
  • {{lang|fr|''Je suis'' English.|italic=unset}}Je suis English.

{{noitalic}} can also be usedStampa:Colon

  • {{lang|fr|Je suis {{noitalic|English}}.}}Je suis English.

Language-specific templates[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

There are language-specific versions of this template, such as {{lang-fr}} and {{lang-ru}}, which are intended to be used the first time a language appears in an article. These templates will print the language's name and, when appropriate, italicize their content:

  • A '''kremlin''' ({{lang-ru|кремль}}, 'castle') is a major fortified central complex ... → A kremlin (Rusisht: кремль, 'castle') is a major fortified central complex ...

While Stampa:Tnull templates output text in italics for languages with Latin-based scripts, if plain text is required, such as for proper names, |italic=no or {{noitalic}} may be used:

  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|Vintimille}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (frëngjisht: Vintimille)
  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|italic=no|Vintimille}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (frëngjisht: Vintimille)
  • the border town of Ventimiglia ({{lang-fr|{{noitalic|Vintimille}}}}) → the border town of Ventimiglia (frëngjisht: Vintimille)

When formatting foreign-language text to match style guidelines, it is best to exclude the styling markup from the template, so that any extraneous markup which is not from the foreign language does not receive incorrect metadata for that language. This includes: English-language quotation marks around titles of works in languages that use other quotation character glyphs; italicization of titles in languages which do not use that convention; and emphasis that is not found (in one style or another) in the original foreign text; among other cases. If in doubt, put such markup outside the template when possible.

2rightarrow (Nuvola colors).svg Shiko gjithashtu artikullin Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting#Foreign terms

Right-to-left languages[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

To embed a string of right-to-left text (such as Arabic or Hebrew) within the usual left-to-right context, |rtl=yes should be added to correctly communicate writing direction. For convenience, the {{rtl-lang}} template accomplishes the same result by automatically including |rtl=yes. To markup a whole paragraph of right-to-left text, {{rtl-para}} should be used instead.

Any of these approaches will wrap the text in a container with the dir="rtl" attribute. In order to ensure correct rendering in browsers that do not fully support HTML5 bidirectional isolation, a left-to-right mark is also added to the end of the text (see the W3C for details).

Note that text direction does not need to be specified when using the Stampa:Tnull templates, as this is implied by the template's language. Therefore there is no {{rtl-lang-ar}}, only {{lang-ar}}.

Parameters[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]


the function selector parameter[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

{{lang}} uses the Lua function lang() Module:Lang. That module also supports all of the Stampa:Tnull templates using the Lua functions lang_xx_inherit() and lang_xx_italic(). The module has other functions that may be useful. The function selector parameter |fn= tells module:lang which function to execute. The available functions are:

  • is_ietf_tag – returns true if the provided IETF language tag is valid; nil else
    • {{lang|fn=is_ietf_tag|nv}}{{{2}}}
    • {{lang|fn=is_ietf_tag|xx}}{{{2}}}
  • is_lang_name – returns true if the provided language name is valid; nil else
    • {{lang|fn=is_lang_name|navajo}}{{{2}}}
    • {{lang|fn=is_lang_name|xxxxx}}{{{2}}}
  • lang – the function that renders {{lang}}; listed here for completeness, this particular usage is more-or-less pointless
  • lang_xx_inherit – the function that renders Stampa:Tnull template where the text is not italicized; can be used when a Stampa:Tnull template, for example {{lang-aao}}, does not exist for a particular language:
    • {{lang|fn=lang_xx_inherit|code=aao|Algerian Saharan Arabic text}}{{{2}}}
  • lang_xx_italic – the function that renders Stampa:Tnull template where the text is italicized; can be used when a Stampa:Tnull template, for example {{lang-svc}}, does not exist for a particular language:
    • {{lang|fn=lang_xx_italic|code=svc|Vincentian Creole English text}}{{{2}}}
  • name_from_tag – returns the language name associated with the provided IETF language tag:
    • {{lang|fn=name_from_tag|apa}}{{{2}}}
  • tag_from_name – returns the ISO 639 language code (sometimes IETF language tag) associated with the provided language name:
    • {{lang|fn=tag_from_name|havasupai}}{{{2}}}
  • transl – the function that renders {{transl}}; listed here for completeness, this particular usage is more-or-less pointless
    • {{lang|fn=transl|ar|DIN|al-Ḫawārizmī}}DIN

Indicating writing script[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

If necessary, an ISO 15924 script code can be appended to a language code to indicate the use of a specific script. For instance, Tajik (tg) is a language which can be found written in Arabic (Arab), Latin (Latn), and Cyrillic (Cyrl) scripts, making it necessary to always specify which script is in use. In such a case, taking care to preserve the script code's capitalization, we could end up with the following code (language tags in bold):

  • Tajik ({{rtl-lang|tg-Arab|تاجیکی}}, ''{{lang|tg-Latn|toçikī}}'', {{lang|tg-Cyrl|тоҷикӣ}})
Tajik (Stampa:Rtl-lang, toçikī, тоҷикӣ)

Many languages, however, are so commonly written in one particular script that specifying the script is unnecessary. Russian, for instance, is almost exclusively written in Cyrillic, so there is no need to specify ru-Cyrl, just as en-Latn would be unnecessary for English. The subtag registry contains up-to-date information on which languages have common script codes that should be "suppressed".

Transliteration[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

To mark a language which has been transliterated from one script into another, append the new script's code to the code of the original language. So if transliterating from Russian Cyrillic to a Latin script, the language tag on the transliteration would be ru-Latn. If the transliteration scheme is known, and listed as a "variant" in the subtag registry, it can be appended after any script and region codes. For example, Chinese transliterated into a Latin script using the pinyin system would be zh-Latn-pinyin. As a convenience for transliterating to Latin scripts, and to work around browser styling issues with some language and script combinations, {{transl}} may be used in place of {{lang}}:

  • Moscow ({{lang|ru|Москва́}}, {{transl|ru|Moskva}})
Moscow (Москва́, Moskva)

To specify a transliteration scheme, such as the ISO transliteration standard for Cyrillic, use {{transl|ru|ISO|Moskva}}.

Undetermined language[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

The {{lang}} template is not only used to specify the language of foreign words, but can also be used to specify a single symbol or character in a script, unrelated to any specific language. Many times the character or symbol is used in several languages, but when the article refers to the grapheme itself, the ISO 639‑2 language code und, for Undetermined language, should be used:

  • The {{lang|und-Hani|字}} Han character has 6 strokes.
The Han character has 6 strokes.

Han characters are used in Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese, and in this case the character is not used for any specific language. Note that the script code used is Hani, which specifies generic Han characters (Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja).

Compare {{script}} usage:

  • The {{script|Hani|字}} Han character has 6 strokes.
The Stampa:Script Han character has 6 strokes.

Languages with no code[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Use the code "mis" (Miscellaneous) for any language not listed in ISO-639.

Indicating regional variant[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

When it is necessary to indicate region-specific language, an ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, or UN M49 region code, should be added to the language tag, taking care to preserve capitalization. For example, Portuguese (pt) as used in Brazil (BR) could be represented as pt-BR, and Spanish as used in Latin America as es-419.

Additionally, language, script, and region codes can all appear in the same tag. For instance, the code zh-Hant-TW should be used for Chinese text written with Traditional Han characters, containing words or expressions specific to Taiwan:

  • Taiwan ({{lang|zh-Hant-TW|臺灣}}, {{transl|zh|Táiwān}})
Taiwan (臺灣, Táiwān)

Private-use language tags[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

This template supports various private-use IETF language tags. Private-use tags contain the -x- singleton and are used by the template to identify languages that are different, for one reason or another, from the base language identified by the ISO 639 language tag. Script error: No such module "Lang/documentor tool".

Rationale[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting § Foreign terms requires the use of {{lang}} instead of manual ''italics''. This is preferred for the following reasons:

Applying styles[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Registered users can apply custom CSS styles to articles by placing style declarations in their user style sheet. The user style sheet can be created at Special:Mypage/common.css. For more information, see Help:User style. The following examples should work in most modern browsers.

To apply a specific font to all text marked as Russian of any script or region:

[lang|=ru] { font-family: fonteskaya; }
/*   or   */
:lang(ru) { font-family: fonteskaya; }

To apply a specific font to text marked simply as Russian:

[lang=ru] { font-family: fonteskaya; }

To apply a color to all text marked with any language:

[lang] { color: green; }

If a font name contains characters besides basic Latin letters or hyphens, it is a good idea to enclose it in quotation marks because some such characters have special meanings (the most common case needing quotation marks is a multi-word font name with space characters). Quotation marks are also required for font families containing generic-family keywords ('inherit', 'serif', 'sans-serif', 'monospace', 'fantasy', and 'cursive'). See the W3C for more details.

You can combine this with font imports in your user stylesheet, for example, to show all German text in Fraktur and all Urdu in Noto Nastaliq Urdu Regular:

@import url(;
@import url(;

:lang(de) {
   font-family: UnifrakturMaguntia;
   font-style: normal;
   font-weight: normal;

:lang(ur) {
    font-family: "Noto Nastaliq Urdu Regular", "Noto Nastaliq Urdu";

then the following wikitext will look like the image below:

Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich

{{lang|de-Latf|Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich}}

ٹھنڈ میں، ایک قحط زدہ گاؤں سے گزرتے وقت ایک چڑچڑے، بااثر و فارغ شخص کو بعض جل پری نما اژدہے نظر آئے۔

{{lang|ur|ٹھنڈ میں، ایک قحط زدہ گاؤں سے گزرتے وقت ایک چڑچڑے، بااثر و فارغ شخص کو بعض جل پری نما اژدہے نظر آئے۔}}

Tracking categories[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

TemplateData[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

TemplateData for Lang

Indicate that a given span of text belongs to a particular language. Allows browsers to correctly present and pronounce foreign languages.

Template parameters

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

Language tag1 code

A language tag, or an ISO 639 language code.

Text2 text

The text belonging to the language specified.

Je suis française.
Right to leftrtl

Indicates that the language should be displayed from right to left.

Italicizeitalic italics

Italicizes the text


sets font-size

120%, 1.2em

no description


See also[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

References[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  1. ^ "Language tags in HTML and XML" at World Wide Web Consortium
  2. ^ Heilmann, Chris (13 mar 2008). "Yahoo! search results now with natural language support". Yahoo! Developer Network Blog. Arkivuar nga origjinali më 25 jan 2009. Marrë më 28 shk 2015. {{cite web}}: Mungon ose është bosh parametri |language= (Ndihmë!)Mirëmbajtja CS1: Datë e përkthyer automatikisht (lidhja)
  3. ^ a b c Ishida, Richard (18 nëntor 2014). "Why use the language attribute?". World Wide Web Consortium. Marrë më 1 mar 2015. {{cite web}}: Mungon ose është bosh parametri |language= (Ndihmë!)Mirëmbajtja CS1: Datë e përkthyer automatikisht (lidhja)
  4. ^ "6.4 Ligatures: the font-variant-ligatures property". CSS Fonts Module Level 3 W3C Candidate Recommendation 3 October 2013. {{cite web}}: Mungon ose është bosh parametri |language= (Ndihmë!)

External links[Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]