Raca (kategorizimi njerëzor)

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Raca është një koncept i përdorur në kategorizimin e njerëzve në grupe, të quajtur raca ose grupe racore, bazuar në kombinimet e tipareve të përbashkëta fizike, prejardhjes, gjenetike, dhe tipare sociale apo kulturore. Megjithëse grupimet e tilla nuk kanë një bazë të fortë në biologjinë moderne, ato vazhdojnë të kenë një ndikim të madh mbi marrëdhëniet shoqërore bashkëkohore. Termi racë për herë të parë është përdorur në shekullin XVII për t'iu referuar folësve të një gjuhe të përbashkët dhe më pas për të treguar lidhjet kombëtare dhe tiparet fizike (fenotipike). Termi shpesh përdoret në një kuptim të përgjithshëm taksonomik biologjik, duke filluar nga shekulli XIX, për të treguar grupet njerëzore të diferencuara gjenetikisht të definuara nga fenotipi. Konceptet shoqërore mbi racat dhe grupimet e racave ndryshojnë me kalimin e kohës, duke përfshirë taksonomi popullore që përcaktojnë llojet esenciale të individëve bazuar në tiparet e përceptuara. Shkencëtarët e konsiderojnë ekzistencializmin biologjik të vjetëruar, dhe në përgjithësi dekurajojnë shpjegimet racore për diferencimin kolektiv si në tiparet fizike ashtu edhe ato bihevioristike (të sjelljes).

Megjithëse ekziston një marrëveshje e gjerë shkencore që konceptualizimet esenciale dhe tipologjike të racës janë të papërshtatshme, shkencëtarët në mbarë botën vazhdojnë të konceptojnë racën në mënyra të ndryshme, disa prej të cilave kanë implikime thelbësore. Përderisa disa studiues përdorin konceptin e racës për të bërë dallime midis grupeve të tipareve ose dallimeve të dukshme në sjellje, të tjerët në komunitetin shkencor sugjerojnë se ideja e racës shpesh përdoret në mënyrë naive ose të thjeshtuar dhe argumentojnë se, midis njerëzve, raca nuk ka rëndësi taksonomike duke vënë në dukje se të gjithë njerëzit i përkasin të njëjtës racë (specie), Homo sapiens dhe nënspecieve, Homo sapiens sapiens. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Shih edhe[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Referenca[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ Abraham, Carolyn (2009-04-07). "Molecular eyewitness: DNA gets a human face". The Globe and Mail. Phillip Crawley. Marrë më 2011-02-04. 
  2. ^ "American Anthropological Association Statement on 'Race'". AAAnet.org. American Anthropological Association (AAA). May 17, 1998. Marrë më April 18, 2009. 
  3. ^ AAPA (1996). "AAPA statement on biological aspects of race" (PDF). Am J Phys Anthropol. 101 (4): 569–70. :10.1002/ajpa.1331010408. 
  4. ^ Amadon, D. (1949). "The seventy-five percent rule for subspecies". Condor. 51 (6): 250–58. :10.2307/1364805.  1364805. 
  5. ^ Amundson, Ron (2005). "Disability, Ideology, and Quality of Life: A Bias in Biomedical Ethics". më David T. Wasserman; Robert Samuel Wachbroit; Jerome Edmund Bickenbach. Quality of life and human difference: genetic testing, health care, and disability. Cambridge University Press. f. 101–24.  9780521832014. 
  6. ^ Andreasen, Robin O. (2000). "Race: Biological Reality or Social Construct?". Philosophy of Science. 67 (Suppl.): S653–66. :10.1086/392853.  188702. 
  7. ^ Angier, Natalie (2000-08-22). "Do Races Differ? Not Really, DNA Shows". The New York Times. Marrë më 9 August 2010. 
  8. ^ Appiah, Kwame Anthony (1992). In My Father's House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture. Oxford University Press.  9780195068528. 
  9. ^ Armelagos, George; Smay, Diana (2000). "Galileo wept: A critical assessment of the use of race in forensic anthropolopy" (PDF). Transforming Anthropology. 9 (2): 19–29. :10.1525/tran.2000.9.2.19. 
  10. ^ Bamshad, Michael; Olson, Steve E (2003-11-10). "Does Race Exist?" (PDF). Scientific American. 289 (6): 78. :2003SciAm.289f..78B. :10.1038/scientificamerican1203-78. 
  11. ^ Bamshad, M; Wooding, S; Salisbury, BA; Stephens (August 2004). "Deconstructing the relationship between genetics and race". Nat. Rev. Genet. 5 (8): 598–609. :10.1038/nrg1401.  15266342. 

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Lidhje të jashtme[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

 Commons: Raca – Album me fotografi dhe/apo video dhe materiale multimediale

Deklarimet zyrtare[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]