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The double bass, or upright bass, also called the string bass, bass fiddle, bass violin, doghouse bass, contrabass, bass viol, stand-up bass, bull fiddle or simply bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument of the viol family in the modern symphony orchestra, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2 (see standard tuning). The double bass is a standard member of the string section of the orchestra[1] and smaller string ensembles[2] in Western classical music. The double bass is played either with a bow (arco) or by plucking the strings (pizzicato). In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz, blues, and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm. While classical music uses just the natural sound produced acoustically by the instrument, in jazz, blues, and related genres, the bass is typically amplified with a bass amplifier.
The bass is used in a range of genres, such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass, tango and many types of folk music. A person who plays the double bass is usually referred to as a bassist. The contrabass violin is the version of the double-bass used in the violin octet; it is larger than the usual double bass and was originally intended to be tuned in 5ths C1-G1-D2-A2 (that is one octave below the cello). However practical considerations have induced some players to tune it in 4ths E1-A1-D2-G2 like the usual double bass. The double bass is a transposing instrument and sounds one octave lower than notated.
The double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument that is tuned in fourths (like a viol), rather than fifths. The issue of the instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, and the claim that the double bass is a direct descendant of the viol family is one that has not been entirely resolved. Some scholars argue that the bass is derived from the violin family.
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