Messapishtja (e njohur edhe si gjuha e mesapeve) është një gjuhe e vdekur indo -evropiane të Evropës Jug-lindore në Itali, e folur dikur në rajonin e Puglia. Ajo ishte folur nga tre Iapygian fiset e rajonit: Messapians, Dauni dhe Peucetii. Gjuha, ka qenë ruajtur në rreth 300 mbishkrime daton nga 6 deri në shekullin 1 pes. Messapian mund të ketë qenë një gjuhë ilire. Gjuhët ilire u folur kryesisht në anën tjetër të Detit Adriatik. Lidhje midis Messapian dhe Ilir është bazuar kryesisht në emrat personale të gjetura në varr mbishkrimet dhe në referenca klasike, që vështirë se çdo gjurmë të gjuhës ilire janë të majtë. Gjuha Messapian u zhduk pas romake Perandoria pushtuar rajon dhe asimiluar banorë.
Tekstet mesape[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Pak nga shkrimet mespe jane deshifruar, ne se vertete jane deshifruar ne rregull.
Nga mbishkrimi Vaste i (Corpus Inscriptionum Messapicarum 149),nje pasazh qe ndofta kosssiton me se shumti ne nje emer personi:
- klohi zis thotoria marta pido vastei basta veinan aran in daranthoa vasti staboos xohedonas daxtassi vaanetos inthi trigonoxo a staboos xohetthihi dazimaihi beiliihi inthi rexxorixoa kazareihi xohetthihi toeihithi dazohonnihi inthi vastima daxtas kratheheihi inthi ardannoa poxxonnihi a imarnaihi
- klauhi Zis
- Dekias Artahias
- Thautouri andirahho
- daus apistathi vinaihi
- Hear Zeus,
- Dekias Artahias
- to the infernal Thaotor
- set up (the rest untranslated)
ne ferrin e Thaotor
vendos ( mbetja eshte e paperkthyer)
Here, klauhi probably means "hear" (<PIE *kleu-, "to hear"); Zis has been interpreted as the Messapic Zeus; Dekias is a first name (compare Latin Decius); Artahias is a patronym or nomen gentile with the Messapic genitive -as suffix; Thautori is inferred to be an infernal god because of its placement next to what appears to be an adjective, andirahho (perhaps from PIE *ndher-, "under").
- klohi zis anthos thotorridas ana aprodita apa ogrebis
The separation of the last two elements is uncertain (apa, ogrebis, as shown here). Klohi (as klauhi in the preceding inscription) probably means "listen, hear". Zis may be the Messapic Zeus, as in the preceding inscription. Aprodita is a loanword from Greek Aphrodite. Anthos Thotorridas is a Messapic anthroponym, showing a personal name plus patronymic or nomen gentile in the genitive (-as).
The Messapian language is preserved in a scanty group of perhaps fifty inscriptions, of which only a few contain more than proper names, and in a few glosses in ancient writers collected by Mommsen (Unteritalische Dialekte, p. 70). Unluckily very few originals of the inscriptions are now in existence, though some few remain in the museum at Taranto. The only satisfactory transcripts are those given by:(perkth:Gjuha Messapian të ruhet në një grup i vogël i mbishkrimeve ndoshta pesëdhjetë, nga të cilat vetëm pak të përmbajë më shumë se emrat e duhur, dhe në disa glosses në shkrimtarët e lashtë të mbledhura nga Mommsen (Unteritalische Dialekte, p. 70). Origjinalet Unluckily shumë pak të mbishkrimet janë tani në ekzistencë, edhe pse disa pak të mbeten në muze në Taranto. Vetëm procesverbalet e kënaqshme janë dhënë nga__ ka nevoje per rdeaktim)
- Mommsen (loc. cit.)
- John P Droop in the Annual of the British School at Athens (1905-1906), xli. 137, who includes, for purposes of comparison, as the reader should be warned, some specimens of the 'unfortunately numerous class of forged inscriptions.
A large number of the inscriptions collected by Gamurrini in the appendices to Fabretti's Corpus inscriptionum italicarum are forgeries, and the text of the rest is negligently reported. It is therefore safest to rely on the texts collected by Mommsen, cumbered though they are by the various readings given to him by various authorities. Despite these difficulties, however, some facts of considerable importance have been established.
The inscriptions, so far as it is safe to judge from the copies of the older finds and from Droop's facsimiles of the newer, are all in the Tarentine-Ionic alphabet (with <no font for this character> for v and <no font for this character> for h). For limits of date 400-150 BC may be regarded as approximately probable; the two most important inscriptions--those of Bindisi and Vastemay perhaps be assigned provisionally to the 3rd century BC. Mommsen's first attempt at dealing with the inscriptions and the language attained solid, if not very numerous, results, chief of which were the genitival character of the endings -aihi and -ihi; and the conjunctional value of inthi (loc. cit. 79-84 sg(1).
Since 1850 little progress has been made. The Norwegian scholar Alf Torp (1853–1916) in Indogermanische Forschungen (1895), V, 195, deals fully with the two inscriptions just mentioned, and practically sums up all that is either certain or probable in the conjectures of his predecessors. Hardly more than a few words can be said to have been separated and translated with certainty--kalatoras (masc. gen. sing.) "of a herald" (written upon a herald's staff which was once in the Naples Museum); aran (acc: sing. fem.) "arable land"; mazzes, "greater" (neut. acc. sing.), the first two syllables of the Latin maiestas; while tepise (3rd sing. aorist indic.) "placed" or "offered"; and forms corresponding to the article (ta = Greek to) seem also probable.
Some phonetic characteristics of the language may be regarded as quite certain:
- the change of PIE short -ǒ- to -ǎ- (as in the last syllable of the genitive kalatoras)
- of final -m to -n (as in aran)
- of -ni- to -nn- (as in the Messapian praenomen Dazohonnes vs. the Illyrian praenomen Dazonius; the Messapian genitive Dazohonnihi vs. Illyrian genitive Dasonii, etc.)
- of -ti- to -tth- (as in the Messapian praenomen Dazetthes vs. Illyrian Dazetius; the Messapian genitive Dazetthihi vs. the Illyrian genitive Dazetii; from a Dazet- stem common in Illyrian and Messapian)
- of -si- to -ss- (as in Messapian Vallasso for Vallasio, a derivative from the shorter name Valla)
- the loss of final -d (as in tepise), and probably of final -t (as in -des, perhaps meaning "set", from PIE *dhe-, "to set, put")
- the change of voiced aspirates in Proto-Indo-European to plain voiced consonants: PIE *dh- or *-dh- to d- or -d- (Mes. anda < PIE *en-dha- < PIE *en-, "in"; compare Gr. entha) and PIE *bh- or *-bh- to b- or -b- (Mes. beran <PIE *bher-, "to bear")
- -au- before (at least some) consonants becomes -ā-: Bāsta, from Bausta
- the form penkaheh --which Torp very probably identifies with the Oscan stem pompaio--a derivative of the Proto-Indo-European numeral *penkwe-, "five".
If this last identification be correct it would show, that in Messapian (as in Venetic) the original labiovelars (kw, gw, ghw) were retained as gutturals and not converted into labials. The change of o to a is exceedingly interesting, being associated with the northern branches of Indo-European such as Germanic, Albanian and Lithuanian, and not appearing in any other southern dialect hitherto known.[citim i duhur] The Greek Aphrodite appears in the form Aprodita (dat. sing., fem.). The use of double consonants which has been already pointed out in the Messapian inscriptions has been very acutely connected by Deecke with the tradition that the same practice was introduced at Rome by the poet Ennius who came from the Messapian town Rudiae (Festus, p. 293 M).
The proper names in the inscriptions show the regular Italic system of gentile nomen preceded by a personal praenomen; and that some inscriptions show the interesting feature which appears in the Tables of Heraclea of a crest or coat of arms, such as a triangle or an anchor, peculiar to particular families. The same reappears in the Iovilae of Capua and Cumae.
fjale mesape[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
|Messapian lexical item||Proposed cognates|
|Bréntion (nga mesapishtja bréndon, bréntion) (Brindisi, Italy)||suedisht brinde "shqip: dre angl:elk", letonishtja briêdis "deer", lituanishtja briedis, "elk", Old Prussian braydis, "elk", Thracian Brendike  (which was a Thracian toponym located just east of Dikaia) Albanian bri, brî (pl. brirë, brinë) "horn; antler" [< late Proto-Albanian *brina < earlier *brena]. The Messapian word is glossed early as "deer", then narrowed in meaning to a deer's head (cf. Strabo caput cervi), then possibly by metonymy to its antlers in early Albanian, and by extension any excrescence, thus modern "horn".|
|penkaheh||Torp e identifikon kete si nje fjale mesape per numrmin "pese", nga PIE *penkwe-, "pese"|
Bibliografia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- W. Deecke in a series of articles in the Rheinisches Museum, xxxvi. 576 sqq.; xxxvii. 373 sqq. ; xl. 131 sqq.; xlii. 226 sqq.
- S. Bugge, Bezzenbergers Beiträge, vol. 18.
- L. Ceci Notizie degli Scavi (1908), p. 86; and one or two others are recorded by Professor Viola, ibid. 1884, p. 128 sqq. and in Giornale degli Scavi di Pompei, vol. 4 (1878), pp. 70 sqq. The place-names of the district are collected by R. S. Conway, The Italic Dialects, p. 31; for the Tarentine-Ionic alphabet see ibid. ii., 461.
For a discussion of the important ethnological question of the origin of the Messapians see:
- Wolfgang Helbig, Hermes, xi. 257
- P. Kretschmer, Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, pp. 262 sqq., 272 sqq.
- H. Hirt, Die sprachliche Stellung der Illyrischen (Festschrift fur H. Kiepert, pp. 179-188)