Gjuha ilire

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Gjuha ilire apo ilirishtja.

Vetëm pak fjale të ilirishtes janë cituar nga burimet klasike nga ato romane apo greke, dhe nga këto vetëm katër janë identifikuar me etnonimin Illyrii ose Illurioí ; të tjerat duhet të identifikohen tërthorazi :

dëshmia kuptimi etimologjia cognates
abeis "snakes" PIE * Lat anguis, Old High Germ unc, Lith angìs, Gk óchis "snake", echis "viper", Toch auk "snake", Arm auj, Russ , Skt áhis, Av aži
bagaron "warm" PIE * Phrygian bekos "bread", Alb bukë "bread", Eng bake, Lat focus "hearth", Old Ir goba "blacksmith", Gk phōgein "to roast", Armenian bosor "red", bots "flame"
brisa "husk of grapes" PIE * Alb bërsí "lees, dregs; mash", Eng broth, Lat defrutum "new wine boiled down", Welsh brwd "brewage", Old Ir bruth "heat, wrath", Thrac brỹtos "barley alcohol", brỹtion "wine must", Gk apéphrysen "to seethe, boil"
deuádai "satyrs" PIE * Skt dhūnoti "he shakes", Gk thýein "to rage, seethe", théeion "sulfur vapor", Eng dizzy, Old Eng dwæs "foolish", Paeonian Dýalos "Dionysos", Lat furere "to rage", belua "wild animal", Old Ir dásacht "rage, fury", Lith dvesiù "to perish, die (animals)", Hitt tuhhai "to gasp"
mandos "small horse" PIE * Alb mëz, mâz "poney", Thrac Mezēnai "divine horseman", Mess Iuppiter Menzanas (divinity)
mantía "bramblebush" PIE * Old and dial. Alb mandë, mod. Alb mën, man "berry, mulberry"
rhinos "fog, mist" PIE * Old Alb ren, mod. Alb re, rê "cloud"
sabaia, sabaium, sabaius "a type of beer" PIE * Eng sap, Lat sapere "to taste", Skt sabar "sap, juice, nektar", Avestan višāpa "having poisonous juices", Arm ham, Gk hapalós "tender, delicate", Old Ch Slav sveptŭ "bee's honey"
sibina (Lat.), sibyna (Lat.), sybina (Lat.); σιβυνη (Gk.), σιβυνης (Gk.), συβινη (Gk.), ζιβυνη (Gk.) Festius, citing Ennius[1]; is compared to συβηνη (Gk.), "flute case", a word found in Aristophanes' Thesmophoriazusai; the word appears in the context of a barbarian speaking "a hunting spear", generally, "a spear", "pike" PIE * Alb thupër "bar, stick"[2], cf. Pers zôpîn, Arm səvīn "a spit"
sica, sicca (Lat.) First notice in Ennius: illyrii restant sicis sybinisque fodentes, of Illyrian soldiers;[3][4] later used in Pliny to describe Thracian implements "curved knife, dagger" PIE * Alb thika "knife"[5][2], cf. Lat sicca "dagger", Lat sicarii "assassins"

Some additional words have been extracted by linguists from toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc. :

  • Agruvium "along the coast between Risinum and Butua": IE *aĝr-; cf. Skt ájraḥ "pasture, field", Lat ager, Gk agrós, Goth akrs
  • Bindus "river god"; cf. Old Ir banne "drop", Skt bindú, vindú "drops, gob, spot", possibly Lat fōns Bandusiae
  • Bosona, "Bosna river", literally "running water": IE *bheg-, bhog- "to run"; cf. Old Ch Slav bĕžati "to flee, run", Lith bėgti "to flee", Gk phébesthai "to flee", phóbos "fear", Alb boj "to drive, mate", Eng beck "brook, stream", Middle Ir búal "flowing water", Hindi bhāg "to flee"
  • mons Bulsinus, "Büžanim hill": IE *bhl.kos; cf. Eng balk, Middle Ir blog "piece, fragment", Lat fulcrum "bedpost", Gk phálanx "trunk, log", Lith balžiena "crossbar", Serb blazína "roof beam", Skt bhuríjāu "cart arms"
  • Derbanoí, Anderva: IE *derv; cf. Eng tree, Alb dru "wood", Old Ch Slav drĕvo "tree", Welsh derw "oak", Gk dóry "wood, spear", drýs "oak, tree", Lith derva "pine wood", Hitt taru "tree, wood', Thrac taru "spear", Skt dru "tree, wood", daru "wood, log"
  • Dizēros, Andízētes: IE *digh; cf. Eng dough, Gk teîchos "wall", Lat fingere "to shape, mold", Old Ir com-od-ding "he builds, erects", Old Russ dĕža "kneading trough", Arm dez "heap", Skt dehah "body, form"
  • Domator, personal name; cf. Old Ir damnaid "he binds, breaks a horse", dam "ox", Eng tame, dialectal Germ zamer "ox not under the yoke", Alb dem "young bull", Lat domāre "to tame", domitor "tamer", Gk dámnēmi "to break in", dámalos "calf", Skt dāmyáti "he is tame; he tames"
  • Loúgeon. Strabo in his Geography mentions "a marsh called Lougeon" (which has been identified as Lake Cerknica in Slovenia) by the locals (Illyrian and Celtic tribes), Lougeon being Strabo's rendition of the local toponym into Greek. cf. Alb lag "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" (< PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" (< PA *leugatā), lakshte "dew" (< PA * laugista); further akin to Lith liűgas "marsh", Old Ch Slav luža "pool", Thrac Lýginos "river name"[6]
  • stagnus Morsianus "marshlands in Pannonia": IE *merĝ; cf. Middle High Germ murc "rotten, withered, boggy", Old Ir meirc "rust", Alb marth "to shiver, shudder", Lith markýti "to rust"
  • Naro: IE *nor; cf. Lith nãras "diving duck", Russ norá "hole", Serbo-Croat po-nor "abyss"
  • Nedinum: IE *ned; cf. Skt nadas "roarer"
  • Oseriates, "lakes"; akin to Old Ch Slav ozero (Serb-Croat jezero), Latvian ezers, Old Pruss assaran, Gk Achérōn "river in the underworld"
  • Pelso (Latin authors referred to modern Lake Balaton as "lacus Pelso", Pelso being a hydronym from the local inhabitants), Pelso apparently meant "deep" or "shallow": IE *pels-; cf. Czech pleso "deep place in a river, lake", Welsh bwlch "crack", Arm pelem "to dig"
  • Tergitio, "merchant"; cf. Old Ch Slav trĭgĭ (Serbo-Croat trg) "market", Old Russ tŭrgŭ "market", Latv tirgus[7]
  • Teuta, Teutana: IE *teuta- "people"; cf. Lith tauta "people", Germ Deutsch "German", Old Eng theod "people", Old Ir túath "clan", Umbrian tota "people", Oscan touto "city", Hitt tuzzi "army"
  • Tómaros, Tomorr mountain; cf. Old Ir temel "darkness", Middle Ir teimen "dark grey", Old High Germ demar "darkness", dinstar "dark", Lat tenebrae "darkness", temere "by chance, rashly", Skt tamas "darkness", tamsrah "dark", Old Ch Slav tima "darkness"
  • Ulcisus mons, Ulcinium (city), Ulcisia castra; cf. Eng wolf, Old Alb ulk, Alb ujk, Avestan vəhrkō, Farsi gurg, Skt vṛkas, Old Ch Slav vlŭkŭ, Russ volcica, Lith vil~kas, Lat lupus, Gk lýkos
  • Volcos, river name in Pannonia; cf. Old Ir folc "heavy rain, wet weather", Welsh golchi "to wash", obsolete Eng welkin "cloud", Old High Germ welk "moist", Old Ch Slav vlaga "moisture, plant juice", vŭlgŭkŭ "wet"

Antroponimet ilire[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Antroponimet e meposhtme vijnë nga ilirishtja ose nuk jane deri tani të lidhuara me ndonje gjuhe tjeter unless noted, such as the Delmatae names of Liburnian origin. Alföldy identified five principal onomastic provinces within the Illyrian area: 1) the "real" Illyrians south of the river Neretva in Dalmatia and extending south to Epirus; 2) the Delmatae, who occupied the middle Adriatic coast between the "real Illyrians" to the south and the Liburni to the north; 3) the Liburni, a branch of Venetic in the northeast Adriatic; 4) the Iapodes, who dwelt north of the Delmatae and behind (inland from) the coastal Liburnians; 5) the Pannonians in the northern lands, and in Bosnia, northern Montenegro and Western Serbia. Katičić (1964) does not recognize a separate Pannonian onomastic area, and includes the Pannoni with the Delmatae. Below, names from four of Alföldy's five onomastic areas are listed, Liburnian excluded, having been identified as being akin to Venetic. A Dardanian area is also detailed. [8][9]

Kentum apo Satem[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Në të gjitha këto raste të mbështetësit e karakterit kentum e konsiderojnë gjuhën ilire PIE k * ^> / * k / ose PIE* ^ g> / * g / pasuar nga një / l / apo / r / të jetë dëshmi e një karakteri kentum të gjuhës ilire. Megjithatë, ngjan se edhe në gjuhën shqipe dhe Balto-sllave të cilat janë gjuhë Satem, në këtë pozicionin fonetik e palatovelaret janë përgjithësisht depalatizuar (depalatizimi i PIE k * ^> * k dhe g * ^> * g para / r / dhe / l / veçanërisht në shqipe).

Referenca[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ A Grammar Of Modern Indo-European: Language & Culture, Writing System & Phonology, Morphology And Syntax by Carlos Quiles,2007,ISBN 84-611-7639-1,"sibina(Lat), sibyna(Lat), sybina(Lat); σιβυνης(Gk.) σιβυνη(Gk.) συβινη(Gk.) ζυβινη(Gk.); a 'hunting spear' generally 'spear', 'pike'; an Illyrian word according to Festius citing Ennius; is compared to συβηνη (Gk.) found in Aristophanes Thesmophoriazusai; the word appears in context of a barbarian speaking.Akin to Persian zopin,Arm savin 'spit'"
  2. ^ a b Hamp 2007
  3. ^ Wilkes (1992)
  4. ^ Catilinarians By Marcus Tullius Cicero, Andrew R. Dyck Edition: illustrated Published by Cambridge University Press, 2008 ISBN 0-521-83286-1, 9780521832861 link [1]
  5. ^ Basic Albanian etymologies By Martin E. Huld Edition: illustrated Published by Slavica Publishers, 1984 Original from the University of Michigan ISBN 0-89357-135-0, 9780893571351
  6. ^ Strabo 7.43, "élos loúgeon kaloúmenon"
  7. ^ This group is considered to be cognate with the Italian city name of Trieste; Alb treg "market" might be a borrowing from South Slavic.
  8. ^ Wilkes (1992): "Thus it seems generally agreed that the name of the Illyrian queen Teuta of the third century BC derives from teutana, which means `queen'." (p. 72)
  9. ^ Wilkes (1992): "The names Daza, Dasius and Dazomenus have been connected with Das- menus in Pannonia and Dazos in southern Italy. The meaning of these plausible correspondences is hard to determine: neither the internal links between the three principal Illyrian onomastic provinces nor those between ..." (p. 71)