Metoda shkencore

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Metoda shkencore është një proces me të cilin shkencëtarët arrijnë të njohin fenomene të caktuara duke vendosur supozime dhe duke testuar ato përmes eksperimenteve. Në mënyrë që të ketë një karakter shkencor, metoda e hulumtimit duhet të bazohet në mbledhjen e shënimeve të dukshme, empirike dhe të matshme. Metoda shkencore është: "metoda e procedurave që janë karakteristikë e shkencave natyrore që nga shekulli XVII, që përbëhen nga vëzhgime, matje dhe eksperimente sistematike, si dhe nga formulimi, testimi dhe ndryshimi eventual i hipotezave".[1] [2] [3] [4]

Një skemë pragmatike lineare dhe procedurale e hulumtimit zakonisht kalon nëpër këto etapa:

  1. Përcaktimi i problemit
  2. Grumbullimi i të dhënave dhe burimeve (vëzhgimi)
  3. Formulimi i hipotezës
  4. Testimi i hipotezës përmes eksperimentit (grumbullimi i të dhënave në mënyrë të vazhdueshme)
  5. Analiza e të dhënave
  6. Interpretimi i rezultateve dhe nxjerrja e përfundimeve (pikënisja për hipoteza të reja)
  7. Publikimi i rezultateve
  8. Rivlerësimi (shpesh bëhet nga shkencëtarë të tjerë).[5]

Metodat kërkimore - shkencore përfshijnë ose ndahen në:

Shih edhe[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Literatura[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  • Henry H. Bauer, Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, 1992
  • William Ian Beardmore Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation, Heinemann, Melbourne, Australia, 1950.
  • Richard J. Bernstein, Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 1983.
  • Baruch A. Brody, and Capaldi, Nicholas, Science: Men, Methods, Goals: A Reader: Methods of Physical Science, W.A. Benjamin, 1968
  • Baruch A. Brody, and Richard Grandy, Readings in the Philosophy of Science, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.
  • Arthur W. Burks, Chance, Cause, Reason: An Inquiry into the Nature of Scientific Evidence, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Alan Chalmers, What Is This Thing Called Science?. Queensland University Press and Open University Press, 1976.
  • Cowles, Henry M., The Scientific Method: An Evolution of Thinking from Darwin to Dewey, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2020. Reviewed in: Riskin, Jessica, "Just Use Your Thinking Pump!", The New York Review of Books, vol. LXVII, no. 11 (2 July 2020), pp. 48–50.
  • Crick, Francis (1988), What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (në anglisht), New York: Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-09137-9.
  • Crombie, A.C. (1953), Robert Grosseteste and the Origins of Experimental Science 1100–1700 (në anglisht), Oxford
  • John Dewey, How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • John Earman (ed.), Inference, Explanation, and Other Frustrations: Essays in the Philosophy of Science, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA, 1992.
  • Bas C. van Fraassen|Fraassen, Bas C. van]], The Scientific Image, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980.
  • Franklin, James (2009), What Science Knows: And How It Knows It (në anglisht), New York: Encounter Books, ISBN 978-1-59403-207-3.
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer, Reason in the Age of Science, Frederick G. Lawrence (trans.), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.
  • Ronald N. Giere (ed.), Cognitive Models of Science, vol. 15 in 'Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science', University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1992.
  • Ian Hacking, Representing and Intervening, Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983.
  • Werner Heisenberg, Physics and Beyond, Encounters and Conversations, A.J. Pomerans (trans.), Harper and Row, New York, 1971, pp. 63–64.
  • Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, 1st edition 1973, revised edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988.
  • Cetina, Knorr K. (1999). Epistemic cultures: how the sciences make knowledge (në anglisht). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-25894-5.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S., The Essential Tension, Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1977.
  • Bruno Latour, Science in Action, How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987.
  • Losee, John, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972. 2nd edition, 1980.
  • Nicholas Maxwell, The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998. Paperback 2003.
  • Nicholas Maxwell, Understanding Scientific Progress, Paragon House, St. Paul, Minnesota, 2017.
  • McCarty, Maclyn (1985), The Transforming Principle: Discovering that genes are made of DNA (në anglisht), New York: W.W. Norton, f. 252, ISBN 978-0-393-30450-3. Memoir of a researcher in the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment.
  • William McComas, ed. "The Principal Elements of the Nature of Science: Dispelling the Myths" (PDF) (në anglisht). (189 KB), from The Nature of Science in Science Education, pp. 53–70, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands 1998.
  • Cheryl Misak, Truth and the End of Inquiry, A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991.
  • Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo (ed.), Language and Learning, The Debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
  • Popper, Karl R., Unended Quest, An Intellectual Autobiography, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1982.
  • Hilary Putnam, Renewing Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
  • Richard Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1979.
  • Wesley C. Salmon, Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1990.
  • Abner Shimony, Search for a Naturalistic World View: Vol. 1, Scientific Method and Epistemology, Vol. 2, Natural Science and Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.
  • Paul Thagard, Conceptual Revolutions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1992.
  • John Ziman (2000). Real Science: what it is, and what it means. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burimi i të dhënave[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  1. ^ Born, Max (1949), Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance (PDF) (në anglisht), Peter Smith
  2. ^ Alfred Scharff Goldhaber, Michael Martin Nieto (janar–mars 2010). "Photon and graviton mass limits". Rev. Mod. Phys. (në anglisht). American Physical Society. 82: 939–979. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.82.939.Mirëmbajtja CS1: Është përdorur parametri i autorëve (link)
  3. ^ "Newton's Philosophy" (në anglisht). Stanford Encyclopedia of Phylosophy.
  4. ^ "Definition of scientific from Oxford Dictionaries Online" (në anglisht).
  5. ^ Crawford S, Stucki L (1990), "Peer review and the changing research record", "J Am Soc Info Science", vol. 41, pp. 223–28
  6. ^ LIGJIN PËR VEPRIMTARINË KËRKIMORE - SHKENCORE Në amëzën assembly-kosova.org Arkivuar 29 shtator 2007 tek Wayback Machine