Kirili dhe Metodi

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Kirili dhe Metodi

Kirili ose Çirili (lindur Konstandin) (826 - 869) dhe Metodi (815 - 885), (greqisht: Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Gjuha e vjetër sllave: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи), dy vëllezër me origjinë nga Greqia. Ata janë njerëzit e parë të cilët hartuan alfabetin e parë të gjuhëve sllave.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Origjina dhe misioni[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Kirili dhe Metodi ishin dy misionarë grek nga rrethi i Selanikut. Këta dy misionar i dërgoi në Moravi perandori bizantin Mihajlo III, me ftesën e dukës së Moravisë, Rastisllavit. Qëllimi ishte për të përhapur fenë e krishterë në mes Sllavëve politeist. Duke pasur parasysh se predikimi duhej të bëhej në gjuhën e këtij populli, sepse ata do ta bënin atë më të lehtë për tu kuptuar dhe në këtë mënyrë do të pranohej më lehtë, kjo formë e re e besimit. Kirilo ishte përgjegjës për të hartuar një lloj alfabeti të ri me shkronja të reja.

Vdekja[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Kirili dhe Metodi nuk ishin të përndjekur përgjatë jetës dhe veprimtarisë së tyre, mirpo pas vdekjes se tyre (Kirillo vdiq në vitin 869, dhe Metodi 885), nxënësit e tyre u dëbuan nga Moravia. Kështu për herë të parë u vendosën kontaktet me Sllavët e Jugut dhe në këtë mënyrë, përmes gjuhës së vjetër sllave e përhapën edhe shkrimin e gllagolicës.

Alfabetet[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Shkrimi gllagolitik

Gllagolica[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Alfabeti dhe shkrimi i parë sllavë quhej gllagolica. Me këtë alfabet është shkruar libri i parë sllav (disa pjesë të Biblës). Kirilo për bazë të gjuhës kombëtare vendosi të marrë dialektin të cilin e kishte mësuar në afërsi të Selanikut. Dallimet në mes të folmeve dhe gjuhëve sllave në atë kohë nuk ishin të mëdha, kështu që kjo gjuhë ishte më e pranueshme nga shumica dhe sot quhet gjuha e vjetër sllave (staroslavenski jezik).

Çirilica[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Shkrimi cirilik

Priftërinjtë sllavë me origjinë nga urdhri i Shën Kirilit dhe Metodit në fillim shkruanin me shkronjat e alfabetit gllagolicë. Megjithatë, njëri nga studentët e Kirilit, ndoshta Klementi i Ohrit, i cili ishte gjithashtu një hartues i biografisë së Shën Kirilit me titullin Jeta e Shën Kirilit prezantoi veprën me alfabetin cirilik. Shkrimi cirilik ishte alfabeti i dytë sllavë i hartuar mbi bazën e shkronjave të alfabetit grek. Ky alfabet i ri shumë shpejt e largoi gllagolicën nga përdorimi. Ai së pari u pranua në Bullgari, por edhe në Serbi, Rusi dhe pjesërisht në Bosnjë. Në Bosnjë, këtë lloj alfabeti, sipas të gjitha gjasave e sollën Maqedonasit.

Shih edhe[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Bibliografia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  • 1. Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew. The Western Experience with Powerweb. Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2002. University of Michigan. p. 214. ISBN 9780072565447
... Two Christian brothers of Slavic descent, Cyril and Methodius, set out in about 862 as missionaries from the Byzantine ...
  • 2. Balkan Studies, Volume 22. Hidryma Meletōn Chersonēsou tou Haimou (Thessalonikē, Greece). The Institute, 1981. Original from the University of Michigan. p. 381
... Being of Slavic descent, both of them spoke the old Slavic language fluently ...
  • 3. Loring M. Danforth. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press, 1995. p. 49 ISBN 9780691043562.
... In the ninth century two brothers Cyril and Methodius, Macedonian educators of Slavic origin from Solun, brought literacy and Christianity to the Slavs...
  • 4. Ihor Ševčenko. Byzantium and the Slavs: In Letters and Culture'. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1991. p. 481. ISBN 9780916458126
... 63-68 (Cyril and Methodius were Slavs) ... There remains that argument for Cyril's and Methodius' Slavic origin which has to do with the Slavic translation of the Gospels and ...
  • 5. Roland Herbert Bainton. Christianity: An American Heritage Book Series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. p. 156. ISBN 9780618056873
... Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
  • 6. John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation. McFarland, 1997. p. 56 . ISBN 9780786437672
..Byzantine emperor Michael, on the request of the Moravian prince Ratislav, decided to send Slav priests as educators, he chose the Salonika brothers Cyril and Methodius...
  • 7. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1984. University of Michigan
... They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
  • 8. The Pakistan Review, Volume 19. Ferozsons Limited, 1971. University of California. p. 41
... century in Salonika, then one of the largest towns in the Byzantine Empire. The brothers were of Slav origin ...
  • 9. Balkania, Volume 7. Balkania Publishing Company, 1973. Indiana University. p. 10
... Cyril and Methodius not only lived among Slavs. ... of Slavonic, which the not only spoke and understood, but in which they also wrote — translated and composed — and for which they invented an alphabet, is proof of their Slav origin ...
  • 10. Bryce Dale Lyon, Herbert Harvey Rowen, Theodore S. Hamerow. A history of the Western World, Volume 1. Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974. Northwestern University. p. 239
... brothers of Slavic origin, Cyril and Methodius, who, after being ordained at Constantinople, preached the Gospel to the Slavs...
  • 11. Roland Herbert Bainton. The history of Christianity. Nelson, 1964. p. 169
...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
  • 12. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples: Facts on File library of world history. Infobase Publishing, 2006. p. 752. ISBN 9781438129181
... There is disagreement as to whether Cyril and his brother Methodius were Greek or Slavic, but they knew the Slavic dialect spoken in Macedonia...
  • 13. Frank Andrews. Ancient Slavs'. Worzalla Publishing Company, 1976. University of Wisconsin - Madison. p. 163.
... Cyril and Methodius derived from a rich family of Salonica, perhaps of Slavic origin, but Grecized in those times. Methodius (815-885) ...
  • 14. Johann Heinrich Kurtz, John Macpherson. Church History. Hodder and Stoughton, 1891. University of California. p. 431
.. Born at Thessalonica, and so probably of Slavic descent, at least acquainted with the language of the Slavs, ...
  • William Leslie King. Investment and Achievement: A Study in Christian Progress. Jennings and Graham, 1913. Columbia University.
.. This man and his brother Cyril became the and Cyril apostles of the Slavic people. These two brothers seemed to have been raised up for such a mission. They were probably of Slavic descent ...
  • Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" "Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessalonica who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity.
  • Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"
  • Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997
  • Lunt, Slavic Review, June 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98
  • V.Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119
  • Hastings, Adrian (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. f. 126.  0-521-62544-0. The activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople. 
  • Fletcher, R. A. (1999). The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. f. 327.  0-520-21859-0. 
  • Cizevskij, Dmitrij; Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Porter, Richard E. Comparative History of Slavic Literatures. Vanderbilt University Press. f. vi.  0-8265-1371-9. Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius. 
  • The illustrated guide to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. f. 14.  0-19-521462-5. In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavoruic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s 
  • Smalley, William Allen (1991). Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement. Macon, Ga.: Mercer. f. 25.  978-0-86554-389-8. The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril and Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880. This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were. The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia. 

Referenca[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ Cyril and Methodius, Encyclopedia Britannica 2005
  2. ^ Vita Constantini slavica, Cap. 18: Denkschriften der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften 19, Wien 1870, p. 246
  3. ^ Chapter 18 of the Slavonic Life of Constantine, an English translation
  4. ^ English Translation of the 18th Chapter of the Vita Constantini Liturgy of the Hours, Proper of Saints, 14 February
  5. ^ http://www.carpatho-rusyn.org/spirit/cyril.htm
  6. ^
    • 1. Philip Lief Group. Saintly Support: A Prayer For Every Problem. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003. p. 37. ISBN 9780740733369
    .. Cyril was born of Greek nobility connected with the senat of Thessalonica, although his mother may have been of Slavic descent ...
    • 2. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization., 1984. University of Michigan
    ... They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
  7. ^ The Lives of the Ninth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis)– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. January 1, 1995.  0-85323-479-5. Marrë më 2015-12-24.