Pandora

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Pandora (1861) nga Pierre Loison (1816–1886)

Pandora (Greqisht: Πανδώρα , rrjedh nga πᾶν , pān, δῶρον "të gjithë" dhe δῶρον, dōron, d.m.th. "dhuratë", pra "i gjithëdhuruari", "gjithë dhurata" ose "dhurimi i gjithanshëm") në mitologjinë greke ishte gruaja, femra e parë njerëzore e krijuar nga Hefesti me udhëzimet e Zeusit . [1] [2] Sipas Hesiodit, secila Perëndi bashkëpunoi duke dhënë dhuratat e saj unike. Emri tjetër i saj - i gdhendur në një kylix e që ndodhet në Muzeun Britanik është [3] Anesidora, "ajo që dërgon dhurata" [4] (duke nënkuptuar këtu kontekstin "nga poshtë" nga brenda tokës).

Miti i Pandorës është një lloj teodiceje, duke trajtuar pyetjen se pse ekziston e keqja në botë. Sipas kësaj, Pandora hapi një kuti (pithos), duke lëshuar të gjitha të këqijat e njerëzimit, e që në rrëfimet moderne ndonjëherë trajtohet si "Kutia e Pandorës". Interpretimi i Hesiodit për historinë e Pandorës vazhdoi të ndikojë në teologjinë hebraike dhe të krishterë dhe kështu përjetësoi reputacionin e saj të keq në kohën e Rilindjes. Poetë, dramaturgë, piktorë dhe skulptorë të mëvonshëm e bënë atë temën e tyre dhe gjatë pesë shekujve kontribuuan në njohuri të reja për motivet dhe rëndësinë e saj.

Galeria[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Shih edhe[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

Shënime[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  1. ^ "Scatter-brained [of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he had formed." (Hesiod, Theogony 510 ff (Hugh G. White, translator)
  2. ^ Grimal, Pierre (1990). "Pandora". përmbledhur nga Kershaw, Stephen (red.). A concise dictionary of Classical Mythology (në anglisht). A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop (translator). Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. ISBN 0-631-16696-3.
  3. ^ B.M. 1881,0528.1: White ground technique' cup from Nola, painted by the Tarquinia painter, c. 470–460 BCE (British Museum on-line catalogue entry)
  4. ^ Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 3rd ed., 1922:281. If Anesidora/Pandora were already "all-gifted", this would be an instance of mythic inversion.

Literatura[Redakto | Redakto nëpërmjet kodit]

  • Athanassakis, A. Hesiod: Theogony, Works and Days, Shield (New York 1983).
  • Beall, E. "The Contents of Hesiod's Pandora Jar: Erga 94–98," Hermes 117 (1989) 227–30.
  • Harrison, Jane Ellen, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903) 1922, pp. 280–85.
  • Griffith, Mark. Aeschylus Prometheus Bound Text and Commentary (Cambridge 1983).
  • Hesiod; Works and Days, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Hesiod, Works and Days, ed. with prolegomena and commentary (Oxford 1978).
  • Hesiod, Theogony, and Works and Days (Oxford 1988).
  • Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Patrick Kaplanian, Mythes grecs d'Origine, volume I, Prométhée et Pandore, Ed. L'entreligne, Paris 2011, distribution Daudin
  • Kenaan, Pandora's Senses: The Feminine Character of the Ancient Text (Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2008), pp. xii, 253 (Wisconsin Studies in Classics).
  • Kirk, G.S., Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (Berkeley 1970) 226–32.
  • Lamberton, Robert, Hesiod, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.  ISBN 0-300-04068-7. Cf. Chapter II, "The Theogony", and Chapter III, "The Works and Days", especially pp. 96–103 for a side-by-side comparison and analysis of the Pandora story.
  • Leinieks, V. "Elpis in Hesiod, Works and Days 96," Philologus 128 (1984) 1–8.
  • Meagher, Robert E.; The Meaning of Helen: in Search of an Ancient Icon, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1995.  ISBN 978-0-86516-510-6.
  • Moore, Clifford H. The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916.
  • Neils, Jenifer, The Girl in the Pithos: Hesiod's Elpis, in "Periklean Athens and its Legacy. Problems and Perspectives", eds. J. M. Barringer and J. M. Hurwit (Austin : University of Texas Press), 2005, pp. 37–45.
  • Nilsson, Martin P. History of Greek Religion, 1949.
  • Panofsky, Dora and Erwin, Pandoras Box - The Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol, Bollingen Series 52, New York 1956
  • Phipps, William E., Eve and Pandora Contrasted, in Theology Today, v.45, n.1, April 1988, Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary.
  • Pucci, Pietro, Hesiod and the Language of Poetry (Baltimore 1977)
  • Rose, Herbert Jennings, A Handbook of Greek Literature; From Homer to the Age of Lucian, London, Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1934. Cf. especially Chapter III, Hesiod and the Hesiodic Schools, p. 61
  • Schlegel, Catherine and Henry Weinfield, "Introduction to Hesiod" in Hesiod / Theogony and Works and Days, University of Michigan Press, 2006.  ISBN 978-0-472-06932-3.
  • Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Pando'ra"
  • Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Anesido'ra"
  • Verdenius, Willem Jacob, A Commentary on Hesiod Works and Days vv 1–382 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1985).  ISBN 90-04-07465-1. This work has a very in-depth discussion and synthesis of the various theories and speculations about the Pandora story and the jar. Cf. p. 62 and onwards.
  • Vernant, J. P., Myth and Society in Ancient Greece (New York 1990) 183–201.
  • Vernant, J. P. « Le mythe prométhéen chez Hésiode », in Mythe et société en Grèce ancienne, Paris, Maspéro, 1974, pp. 177–194
  • Warner, M., Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (New York 1985) 213–40
  • West, M. L., Hesiod, Theogony, ed. with prolegomena and commentary (Oxford 1966).
  • West, M. L., Hesiod, Works and Days, ed. with prolegomena and commentary (Oxford 1978).
  • Zarecki, Jonathan P., "Pandora and the Good Eris in Hesiod", Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 47 (2007) 5–29
  • Zeitlin, Froma. Playing the Other: Gender and Society in Classical Greek Literature (Princeton 1995).