Reparacionet e luftës
Dëmshpërblime të Luftës të bëjë me kompensimin monetar për qëllim për të mbuluar dëmet apo lëndim gjatë një lufte. Në përgjithësi, dëmshpërblime të luftës termi i referohet parave ose mallrave, dhe jotransferet e pronës apo aneksimin e tokës.
Historia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Përpara Luftës se pare botërore[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Traktate të pabarabarta firmosur nga Dinastia Qing në Kina, Japonia, Korea, Siam, Persia, Perandoria Osmane, Afganistani dhe vendet të tjera në shekullin e nëntëmbëdhjetë përfshinë pagesat e dëmshpërblimeve për fuqitë fitimtare perëndimore, kryesisht Mbretëria e Bashkuar, Francë edhe Rusia, dhe me vene Japonia.
Pas Lufta Franco-Prusiane, në përputhje me kushtet e Marrëveshjes se Frankfurtit (1871) (10 Maj 1871), Franca ishte i detyruar të paguajë një dëmshpërblim të luftës nga pesë miliardë franga ari në pesë vjet. Trupat gjermane kanë mbetur në disa pjesë të Francës deri këste e fundit të dëmshpërblim ishte paguar në shtator 1873, para datës të detyruar..
Lufta e Pare Botërore[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Lufta e Dyte Botërore[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Evropa[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Pas Luftës së Dytë Botërore, ne baze te konference Potsdam mbajtur midis 17 gusht dhe 2 gusht 1945, Gjermania duhej ti paguante Allies 20 bilion USD kryesisht ne maqineri, manufacturing plants. Reparationet per Bashkimit Sovjetik u ndaluan me 1953. Përveç kësaj, në përputhje me të rënë dakord mbi politikën e de-industrializimit dhe pastoralization e Gjermanisë, numër i madh i fabrikave civile janë shkatërruar për transportit në Francë dhe Mbretërinë e Bashkuar, ose thjesht shkatërruar. Çmontimi në perëndim ndalur në vitin 1950.
In the end, war victims in many countries were compensated by the property of Germans that were expelled after World War II. Beginning immediately after the German surrender and continuing for the next two years, the United States pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany. Historian John Gimbel, in his book Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany, states that the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U.S. and the UK amounted to close to $10 billion dollars. German reparations were partly to be in the form of forced labor. By 1947, approximately 4,000,000 German POW's and civilians were used as forced labor (under various headings, such as "reparations labor" or "enforced labor") in the Soviet Union, France, the UK, Belgium and in Germany in U.S run "Military Labor Service Units". Stampa:Seealso
Në përputhje me Traktati i Paqes se Paris i 1946-es, Italia u pajtua të papguaj reparacione rreth 125 milion USD Jugosllavise, US$105 million Greqise, US$100 million to the Soviet Union, US$25 million Etiopise, and US$5 million to Shqipëria. Finlandapranoi te paguaj reparacionet reth US$300 million Bashkimit Sovjetik.
Hungary agreed to pay reparations of US$200 million to the Soviet Union, US$100 million to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Romania agreed to pay reparations of US$300 million to the Soviet Union. Bulgaria agreed to pay reparations of $50 million to Greece and $25 million to Yugoslavia.
Japoni[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Në përputhje me Treaty of Peace with Japan and the bilateral agreements, Japan agreed to pay around 1 trillion and 30 billion yen. For countries that renounced any reparations from Japan, it agreed to pay indemnity and/or grants in accordance with bilateral agreements.
Kritika[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
The main criticisms of war reparations have historically been:
- that they are punitive measures against the populace of the losing side only, rather than against the belligerent side, which may be the side that justly ought to make amends.
- that in very many instances, the defeated populace's government waged war, and the people themselves had little or no role in deciding to wage war, and therefore war reparations are imposed on innocent people.
- that after years of war, the populace of the losing side is likely already impoverished, and the imposition of war reparations therefore may drive the people into deeper poverty, both fueling long-term resentment of the victor and making the actual payments unlikely.
John Maynard Keynes claimed that overall influence on the world economy would have been disastrous.
Some critics hold that war reparations were an indirect, but major, cause of World War II. After the end of World War I, the 1919 Treaty of Versailles imposed heavy war reparations upon Germany. Some claim these reparations payments exacerbated German economic problems, and the resulting hyperinflation ruined the chances of the Weimar Republic with the public and allowed the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler. After the Franco-Prussian War, the amount of reparations amount was set at a fixed value. Moreover, the post-World War I amount was subject to frequent recalculations, which encouraged Germany to obstruct payments. Eventually, all payments were cancelled after Hitler rose to power.
The experience of the post-World War I reparations led to the post-World War II solution, where winning powers were supposed to take reparations in machines and movable goods from the defeated nations, as opposed to money.
Reparacione te fundit[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
After the Gulf War, Iraq accepted United Nations Security Council resolution 687, which declared Iraq's financial liability for damage caused in its invasion of Kuwait. The United Nations Compensation Commission ("UNCC") was established, and US$350 billion in claims were filed by governments, corporations, and individuals. Funds for these payments were to come from a 30% share of Iraq's oil revenues from the oil for food program. It was not anticipated that US$350 billion would become available for total payment of all reparations claims, so several schedules of prioritization were created over the years. The UNCC says that its prioritization of claims by natural people, ahead of claims by governments and legal people, "marked a significant step in the evolution of international claims practice."
Payments under this reparations program continue; as of July 2004, the UNCC stated that it had actually distributed US$18.4 billion to claimants.
Shih edhe[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)
- Treaty of Versailles
- Yalta Conference
- Potsdam Conference
- Boxer Protocol
- Treaty of San Francisco
Shenime[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Referencea[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John "The Wreck of Reparations, being the political background of the Lausanne Agreement, 1932", New York, H. Fertig, 1972.
- Ilaria Bottigliero "Redress for Victims of Crimes under International Law", Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague (2004).