Azerët

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Azerbajxhanasit
Azərbaycanlılar, Azərilər
آذربایجانلیلار، آذریلر
Vue du petit et du grand Ararat prise du Village Tatare, Sirbaghan (grey scale original).jpg
Pamje e Ararati-t të Madh dhe të Vogël me fshatin "Tatar" (Azer), 1838
Popullsia e përgjithshme
rreth 28–35 milionë[1][2]
Rajone me popullsi të konsiderueshme
Flag of Iran.svg Iran më shumë se 15 milionë (Encyclopædia Britannica)[3]
12.9-18 milionë (CIA factbook,[4] Knüppel,[5] Izady,[6] Swietochowski[7])
18-27 milionë (e.g. Elling,[8] Shaffer,[9] Minahan,[10] Gheissari[11])
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Azerbajxhani 8,172,800[12]
Flag of Russia.svg Rusia 603,070 to 1,500,000[13][14]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turqia 530,000 to 800,000[14][15]
Flag of Georgia.svg Gjeorgjia 284,761[16]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakistani 85,292[17]
Flag of Israel.svg Izraeli 60,000[18]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraina 45,176[19]
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistani 44,400[20]
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistani 33,365[21]
Flag of the United States.svg Shtetet e Bashkuara të Amerikës 24,377 to 400,000[22][23][24]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Holanda 18,000[25]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg Kirgistani 17,823[26]
Flag of Germany.svg Gjermania 15,219[27]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Emiratet e Bashkuara Arabe 7,000[28]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Britania e Madhe 6,220[29]
Flag of Belarus.svg Bjellorusia 5,567[30]
Flag of Canada.svg Kanadaja 4,580[31]
Flag of Latvia.svg Letonia 1,657[32]
Flag of Austria.svg Austria 1,000[33]
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia 923[34]
Flag of Lithuania.svg Lituania 648[35]
Flag of Norway.svg Norvegjia 501[36]
Flag of Australia.svg Australia 290[37]
Fetë
Shumicai përkasin Islamit Shiitë; pakicë Islam Synitë, Judaizëm,[38][39] Bahá'í Faith,[40][41] Zoroastrianism,[42] Irreligion,[43] Krishterizmit[44][45]

Azerbajxhanasit ( /ˌæzərbˈɑːniz/) ose Azerët (azerbajxhanisht: Azərilər آذریلر, Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار), gjithashtu njihen si Turq Azerbajxhanas[46][47][48] (azerbajxhanisht: Azərbaycan Türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), janë një grup etnik turk[49][50][51] që jetojnë kryesisht në Azerbajxhanin Iranian dhe në Republikën e pavarur të Azerbajxhanit. Ato janë grupi etnik i dytë më i madh mes popujve turke pas turqve. Ata janë kryesisht myslimanë Shiitë,[52] dhe kanë një trashëgimi të përzier kulturore, duke përfshirë elemente iraniane,[53] turke[54] dhe kaukaze. Ata përbëjnë grupin më të madh etnik në Republikën e Azerbajxhanit dhe janë grupi i dytë më i madh etnik në Iranin fqinj.[55] Numri më i madh në botë i azerbajxhanasve etnikë jetojnë në Iran, e ndjekur nga Azerbajxhani.[56]

Etimologjia e Azerbajxhanit[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Azerbajxhani besohet se është emërtuar sipas Atropates, një satrap (governator) pers[57][58][59][60], i cili ka sunduar në Atropatene (sot Azerbajxhani Iranian) rr. 321 p.e.s.[61][62]

Etnonimi[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Historia e Azerbajxhanit[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Red right arrow.svg
 Artikulli kryesor: Historia_e_Azerbajxhanit.

Banorët e lashtë të zonës flisnin gjuhën e lashtë Azeri, e cila i përkiste degës iranianegjuhëve indo-evropiane.[63] Në shekullin e 11 pas Krishtit me pushtimet Seljukid, fiset Oghuze turke filluan të lëvizin nëpër pllajën iraniane në Kaukaz dhe në Anadoll. Fluksi i Oghuzëve dhe fiseve të tjera turkmene u nënshtruan më tej nga pushtimi mongol.[64] Këtu, fiset Oghuz u ndanë në grupe të ndryshme të vogla, disa prej të cilave – shumica Sunitë – u zhvendosën në Anadoll (p.sh., më vonë Osmanët) dhe u vendosën, ndërsa të tjerët mbetën në rajonin e Kaukazit dhe më vonë – për shkak të ndikimit të Safaviyya – përfundimisht u konvertuan në degën Shiitë të Islamit.

Këto të fundit do të mbajë emrin "turkmen" ose "turkoman" për një kohë të gjatë: nga shekulli i 13 e tutje ata gradualisht i turkëzuan popullsinë iraniane-folëse të Azerbajxhanit, si Republikën bashkëkohore ashtu edhe Azerbajxhanin Iranian, duke krijuar kështu një identitet të ri të bazuar në Shiitët dhe përdorimin e Oghuzëve turk. Sot, kjo popullsi turk-folëse është e njohur si Azerbajxhanasit.[54]

Origjina e Azerbajxhanasve[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Demografia dhe shoqëria[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Kultura[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

Referencat[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]

  1. ^ "Azerbaijani". Joshua Project. Marrë më 24 January 2012. 
  2. ^ Sela, Avraham (2002). The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Continuum. p. 197. ISBN 0-8264-1413-3. 30–35 milionë 
  3. ^ "Azerbaijani (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Marrë më 24 January 2012. 
  4. ^ "Iran". CIA: The World Factbook. CIA. 14 November 2011. Marrë më 4 October 2012. 16% of 77,891,220 [12.5 million] 
  5. ^ Michael Knüppel, "TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW", Encyclopaedia Iranica [1] "Altogether, one-sixth of today's Iranian population is turcophone or bilingual (Persian and Turkic; see Doerfer, 1969, p. 13).
  6. ^ Mehrdad Izady – Columbia University – Gulf 2000 Project – Language Map of Iran – 2012 http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/maps.shtml"
  7. ^ Swietochowski, Tadeusz; Collins, Brian C. (1999). Historical dictionary of Azerbaijan. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3550-9. "15 milionë (1999)"
  8. ^ Elling, Rasmus Christian. Minorities in Iran: Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini , Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Excerpt: "The number of Azeris in Iran is heavily disputed. In 2005, Amanolahi estimated all Turkic-speaking communities in Iran to number no more than 9 milionë. CIA and Library of congress estimates range from 16 percent to 24 percent -- that is, 12-18 milionë people if we employ the latest total figure for Iran's population (77.8 milionë). Azeri ethnicsts, on the other hand, argue that overall number is much higher, even as much as 50 percent or more of the total population. Such inflated estimates may have influenced some Western scholars who suggest that up to 30 percent (that is, some 23 milionë today) Iranians are Azeris." [2]
  9. ^ Shaffer, Brenda (2003). Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity. MIT Press. pp. 221–225. ISBN 0-262-19477-5"There is considerable lack of consensus regarding the number of Azerbaijanis in Iran ...Most conventional estimates of the Azerbaijani population range between one-fifth to one-third of the general population of Iran, the majority claiming one-fourth" Azerbaijani student groups in Iran claim that there are 27 milionë Azerbaijanis residing in Iran."
  10. ^ Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1765. ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3"Approximately (2002e) 18,500,000 Southern Azeris in Iran, concentrated in the northwestern provinces of East and West Azerbaijan. It is difficult to determine the exact number of Southern Azeris in Iran, as official statistics are not published detailing Iran's ethnic structure. Estimates of the Southern Azeri population range from as low as 12 milionë up to 40% of the population of Iran – that is, nearly 27 milionë..."
  11. ^
    • Ali Gheissari, "Contemporary Iran:Economy, Society, Politics: Economy, Society, Politics", Oxford University Press, 2 April 2009. pg 300Azeri ethnonationalist activist, however, claim that number to be 24 milionë, hence as high as 35 percent of the Iranian population"
  12. ^ Переписи населения Азербайджана 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009 годов
  13. ^ "Итоги переписи". 2010 census. Russian Federation State Statistics Service. 2012. Marrë më 24 January 2015. 
  14. ^ a b van der Leeuw, Charles (2000). Azerbaijan: a quest for identity : a short history. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-312-21903-1. 
  15. ^ Turkey-Peoples. Looklex Encyclopaedia. Marrë më 13 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Ethnic groups by major administrative-territorial units" (PDF). 2002 census. National Statistics Office of Georgia. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  17. ^ "Population by national and/or ethnic group, sex and urban/rural residence (2009 census)" (PDF). Agency for the Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Marrë më 15 August 2012. 
  18. ^ "History of the Azerbaijani Jewish Community". Euro-Asian Jewish Congress. 
  19. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  20. ^ "The National Structure of the Republic of Uzbekistan". Umid World. 1989. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР. Демоскоп Weekly (in Russian) (493–494). 1–22 January 2012. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  22. ^ "Azerbaijani-American Council rpartners with U.S. Census Bureau". News.Az. 28 December 2009. Marrë më 2012-07-11. 
  23. ^ http://www.azeris.org/images/proclamations/May28_BrooklynNY_2011.JPG
  24. ^ "Obama, recognize us – St. Louis American: Letters To The Editor". Stlamerican.com. 9 March 2011. Marrë më 2012-07-11. 
  25. ^ "The Kingdom of the Netherlands: Bilateral relations: Diaspora" (PDF). Republic of Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  26. ^ "5.01.00.03 Национальный состав населения" (PDF) (in Russian). National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyz Republic. 2011. Marrë më 17 January 2012. 
  27. ^ "Foreign population on 31.12.2006 by citizenship and selected characteristics". Federal Statistical Office (Destatis). Arkivuar nga the original më 2010-11-16. Marrë më 3 February 2012. 
  28. ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". BQ Magazine. 12 April 2015. Marrë më 13 June 2015. 
  29. ^ "Nationality and country of birth by age, sex and qualifications Jan - Dec 2013 (Excel sheet 60Kb)". www.ons.gov.uk. Office for National Statistics. Marrë më 11 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "Population Census 2009" (PDF). National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Marrë më 17 April 2013. 
  31. ^ "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households". Statistics Canada. 2011. Marrë më 13 August 2013.  In the 2011 census, 1,985 people indicated 'Azeri'/'Azerbaijani' as a single response and 2,595 as part of multiple origins.
  32. ^ Poleshchuk, Vadim (March 2001). "Accession to the European Union and National Integration in Estonia and Latvia" (PDF). European Center for Minority Issues. Marrë më 18 January 2012. 232 citizens 
  33. ^ "The Republic of Austria: Bilateral relations" (PDF). Republic of Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Marrë më 18 January 2012. 
  34. ^ "Population Census of 2011". Statistics Estonia. Marrë më 24 January 2015.  Select "Azerbaijani" under "Ethnic nationality".
  35. ^ "Population by ethnicity in 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 2001 and 2011" (PDF). Lithuanian Department of Statistics. Marrë më 10 March 2016. 
  36. ^ "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2013". 
  37. ^ 2006 Australian Census. NB According to the 2006 census, 290 people living in Australia identified themselves as of Azeri ancestry, although the Australian-Azeri community is estimated to be larger. . Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  38. ^ http://haruth.com/jw/JewsAzerbaijan.html
  39. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Azerbaijan.html
  40. ^ http://www.bahai.az/ Azerbaidjan Bahai
  41. ^ Bəhailik Azerbaidjan Bahai
  42. ^ "Azerbaijan". Marrë më 18 March 2015. 
  43. ^ "Today.Az - Covering Azerbaijan inside and outside". Marrë më 18 March 2015. 
  44. ^ "5,000 Azerbaijanis adopted Christianity" (in Russian). Day.az. 7 July 2007. Marrë më 30 January 2012. 
  45. ^ "Christian Missionaries Becoming Active in Azerbaijan" (in Azerbaijani). Tehran Radio. 19 June 2011. Marrë më 12 August 2012. 
  46. ^ Alstadt, Audrey L. (2013-09-01). The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule. Hoover Press. ISBN 9780817991838. 
  47. ^ Iran: political development in a changing society Page 160
  48. ^ World Regional Geography Page 200
  49. ^ Svante E. Cornell (20 May 2015). Azerbaijan Since Independence. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-317-47621-4. 
  50. ^ Barbara A. West (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7. 
  51. ^ James Minahan (1 January 2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1766. ISBN 978-0-313-32384-3. 
  52. ^ Robertson, Lawrence R. (2002). Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual. Academic International Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-87569-199-4. 
  53. ^ "Azerbaijan". Marrë më 18 March 2015. 
  54. ^ a b Roy, Olivier (2007). The new Central Asia. I.B. Tauris. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84511-552-4. The mass of the Oghuz who crossed the Amu Darya towards the west left the Iranian plateaux, which remained Persian, and established themselves more to the west, in Anatolia. Here they divided into Ottomans, who were Sunni and settled, and Turkmens, who were nomads and in part Shiite (or, rather, Alevi). The latter were to keep the name 'Turkmen' for a long time: from the 13th century onwards they 'Turkised' the Iranian populations of Azerbaijan (who spoke west Iranian languages such as Tat, which is still found in residual forms), thus creating a new identity based on Shiism and the use of Turkish. These are the people today known as Azeris. 
  55. ^ Brenda Shaffer. The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy MIT Press, 2006 ISBN 0262195291 p 229
  56. ^ Bani-Shoraka, Helena (2005). "Language Policy and Language Planning: Some Definitions". In Rabo, Annika; Utas, Bo. The Role of the State in West Asia. Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. p. 144. ISBN 91-86884-13-1. 
  57. ^ Minahan, James (2000). Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. Greenwood. p. 20. ISBN 0-313-30610-9. 
  58. ^ Lendering, Jona. "Atropates (Biography)". Livius.org. Marrë më 27 January 2012. 
  59. ^ Chamoux, Francois (2003). Hellenistic Civilization. Blackwell Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 0-631-22241-3. 
  60. ^ Bosworth, A. B.; Baynham, E. J. (2002). Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction. Oxford University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-19-815287-6. 
  61. ^ Atabaki, Touraj (2000). Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and the Struggle for Power in Iran. I. B. Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 1-86064-554-2. 
  62. ^ Altstadt, Audrey L. (1992). The Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity under Russian Rule. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-9182-4. 
  63. ^ Yarshater, E (18 August 2011). "The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan". Encyclopædia Iranica. Marrë më 25 January 2012. 
  64. ^ Bosworth, C. E. (12 August 2011). "Arran". Encyclopædia Iranica. Marrë më 25 January 2012. 

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