Shqiptarët në Turqi
|Popullsia e përgjithshme|
|Islami - Krishterimi|
Shqiptarët në Republikën e Turqisë (tur. Türkiye'deki Arnavutlar) përbëjnë një pakicë kombëtare në Turqi, e cila nuk është e njohur zyrtarisht. Kjo pakicë përbëhet nga shqiptarë të cilët erdhën në Turqi gjatë periudhës osmane, kryesisht shqiptarë nga Kosova dhe Maqedonia e sotme, nga Çamëria, si dhe në numër më të vogël nga Shiqipëria dhe Mali i Zi i sotëm, të cilët mërguan si pasojë e persekutimit serb dhe grek pas fillimit të Luftërave Ballkanike. Numri i shqiptarëve në Turqi llogaritet të jetë nga 500 mijë deri në 1.3 milionë, ndërsa sipas disa burimeve tjera nurmri i personave me prejardhje shqiptare është rreth 5 milionë.
Demografia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Në censusin e vitit 1965, 12,832 shtetas të Turqisë flisinin shqipen si gjuhë amtare, që përbënte rreth 0.04% të popullsisë. Shumica ishin të vendosur në Bursa, Sakarja, Tokat dhe Stamboll. 390,613 të tjerë flisin shqipen si gjuhë të dytë (1.28% e popullsisë). Gjithësej, numri i popullsisë shqipfolëse në Turqi në vitin 1965 ishte 403,445 ose 1.3% e popullsisë së Turqisë.
Historia[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Si pasojë e doktrinës së shenjtë serbe dhe si pasoj e migrimit shqiptarë gjatë kohës së perandoris Omane një numër i konsiderueshem i shqiptarvë kanë marr shtetësin e Turqisë pas krijimit të saj. Për shkak të mungeses së regjistrimit të popullsisë sipas racës edhe numri i shtetasve turk me prejardhje shqiptare nuk mund të dihet saktësisht.
Si do që të jetë dihet se në Stamboll ka pasur familje të racës shqiptare që kanë jetuar dhe punuar aty. Mirëpo shumica e shtetasve turk të racës shqiptare anë të ardhur nga teritoret e Sanxhakut të Nishit, Vilajetit të Kosovës, Sanxhaku i Manastirit dhe Sanxhaku i Janinës, të gjitha këto njësi administrative të asaj kohe..[citim i duhur]
Shqiptarë të njohur në Turqi[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Në Perandorinë Osmane[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Në Republikën e Turqisë[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Shih dhe[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
Referencat[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- ^ Geniş & Maynard 2009, pp. 553–555. "Taking a chronological perspective, the ethnic Albanians currently living in Turkey today could be categorized into three groups: Ottoman Albanians, Balkan Albanians, and twentieth century Albanians. The first category comprises descendants of Albanians who relocated to the Marmara and Aegean regions as part of the Ottoman Empire's administrative structure. Official Ottoman documents record the existence of Albanians living in and around Istanbul (Constantinople), Iznik (Nicaea), and Izmir (Smyrna). For example, between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries Albanian boys were brought to Istanbul and housed in Topkapı Palace as part of the devşirme system (an early Ottoman practice of human tribute required of Christian citizens) to serve as civil servants and Janissaries. In the 1600s Albanian seasonal workers were employed by these Albanian Janissaries in and around Istanbul and Iznik, and in 1860 Kayserili Ahmet, the governor of Izmir, employed Albanians to fight the raiding Zeybeks. Today, the descendants of Ottoman Albanians do not form a community per se, but at least some still identify as ethnically Albanian. However, it is unknown how many, if any, of these Ottoman Albanians retain Albanian language skills. The second category of ethnic Albanians living in modern Turkey is composed of people who are the descendants of refugees from the Balkans who because of war were forced to migrate inwards towards Eastern Thrace and Anatolia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as the Ottoman Empire dissolved. These Balkan Albanians are the largest group of ethnic Albanians living in Turkey today, and can be subcategorized into those who ended up in actual Albanian-speaking communities and those who were relocated into villages where they were the only Albanian-speaking migrants. Not surprisingly, the language is retained by some of the descendants from those of the former, but not those of the latter. The third category of ethnic Albanians in Turkey comprises recent or twentieth century migrants from the Balkans. These recent migrants can be subcategorized into those who came from Kosovo in the 1950s–1970s, those who came from Kosovo in 1999, and those who came from the Republic of Albania after 1992. All of these in the third category know a variety of modern Albanian and are mostly located in the western parts of Turkey in large metropolitan areas. Our research focuses on the history of migration and community formation of the Albanians located in the Samsun Province in the Black Sea region around 1912–1913 who would fall into the second category discussed above (see Figure 1). Turkish census data between 1927 and 1965 recorded the presence of Albanian speakers in Samsun Province, and the fieldwork we have been conducting in Samsun since September 2005 has revealed that there is still a significant number of Albanians living in the city and its surrounding region. According to the community leaders we interviewed, there are about 30,000–40,000 ethnic Albanian Turkish citizens in Samsun Province. The community was largely rural, located in the villages and engaged in agricultural activities until the 1970s. After this time, gradual migration to urban areas, particularly smaller towns and nearby cities has been observed. Long-distance rural-to-urban migration also began in later years mostly due to increasing demand for education and better jobs. Those who migrated to areas outside of Samsun Province generally preferred the cities located in the west of Turkey, particularly metropolitan areas such as Istanbul, Izmir and Bursa mainly because of the job opportunities as well as the large Albanian communities already residing in these cities. Today, the size of the Albanian community in Samsun Province is considered to be much smaller and gradually shrinking because of outward migration. Our observation is that the Albanians in Samsun seem to be fully integrated into Turkish society, and engaged in agriculture and small trading businesses. As education becomes accessible to the wider society and modernization accelerates transportation and hence communication of urban values, younger generations have also started to acquire professional occupations. Whilst a significant number of people still speak Albanian fluently as the language in the family, they have a perfect command of the Turkish language and cannot be distinguished from the rest of the population in terms of occupation, education, dress and traditions. In this article, we are interested in the history of this Albanian community in Samsun. Given the lack of any research on the Albanian presence in Turkey, our questions are simple and exploratory. When and where did these people come from? How and why did they choose Samsun as a site of resettlement? How did the socio-cultural characteristics of this community change over time? It is generally believed that the Albanians in Samsun Province are the descendants of the migrants and refugees from Kosovo who arrived in Turkey during the wars of 1912–13. Based on our research in Samsun Province, we argue that this information is partial and misleading. The interviews we conducted with the Albanian families and community leaders in the region and the review of Ottoman history show that part of the Albanian community in Samsun was founded through three stages of successive migrations. The first migration involved the forced removal of Muslim Albanians from the Sancak of Nish in 1878; the second migration occurred when these migrants’ children fled from the massacres in Kosovo in 1912–13 to Anatolia; and the third migration took place between 1913 and 1924 from the scattered villages in Central Anatolia where they were originally placed to the Samsun area in the Black Sea Region. Thus, the Albanian community founded in the 1920s in Samsun was in many ways a reassembling of the demolished Muslim Albanian community of Nish. This trajectory of the Albanian community of Nish shows that the fate of this community was intimately bound up with the fate of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans and the socio-cultural composition of modern Turkey still carries on the legacy of its historical ancestor."
- ^ Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı! – milliyet.com.tr
- ^ Deliso 2007, p. 38.
- ^ Saunders 2011, p. 98.
- ^ Yenigun 2009, p. 184. "Turkey contains 5-6 million Albanians (more than in the Balkan area)"
Lidhe të jashtme[redakto | redakto tekstin burimor]
- Shqiptarët dhe Turqia – galabri.com